International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Investigation on the heat dissipation of high heat flux chip array by fractal microchannel networks

With the development of integrated circuits, high power and high integration chip array devices are facing the requirements of high heat flux and temperature uniformity. The microchannel heat sink can meet the heat dissipation requirements of chip array devices with high heat flux, and the flow channel with fractal structure can achieve high temperature uniformity of chip array. In this study, the H-shaped fractal microchannel structure was proposed to cooling the 4×4 chip (1 × 1 mm) array. The interior fillet structure (IFS) was introduced to optimize T-shaped and L-shaped corner structures in the fractal channel. The simulation results show that the overall pressure drop of microchannel heat sink with IFS is reduced 18.7%, and the maximum temperature difference of 4×4 chip array is less than 1.2ºC at 1000 W/cm2. The microchannel heat sink with IFS was fabricated and assembled, and the hydro-thermal performance was characterized by thermal test chip (TTC) at different flow rates and heat fluxes. The experimental results show that the standard deviation of temperature of 4×4 chip array is less than 3.5ºC at 1000 W/cm2 and 480 ml/min. The error between experimental and simulation data is within ±1.5%, which proves the reasonability of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling and simulation. And furthermore, the results demonstrate that by introducing IFS into the T-shaped and L-shaped structures could reduce pumping power and improve temperature uniformity of chip array, which can be applied to improve the performance of the chip array devices with high heat flux.
PAPER REVISED: 2022-04-05
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-04-08
  1. Drummond, K. P., et al., A hierarchical manifold microchannel heat sink array for high-heat-flux twophase cooling of electronics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 117 (2018), pp. 319-330
  2. Lu, W., et al., Application of high-thermal-conductivity diamond for space phased array antenna, Functional Diamond, 1 (2021), 1, pp. 189-196
  3. Li, Y., et al., Simulation and Characterization of Si-based Microchannel for Module Level Cooling, 20th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Hong Kong, China, 2019
  4. Hu, D., et al., Numerical study on flow and heat transfer characteristics of microchannel designed using topological optimizations method, Science China Technological Sciences, 63 (2019), 1, pp. 105-115
  5. Tuckerman, D. B., Implications of High-Performance Heat Sinking for Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 28 (1981), 10, pp. 1230-1231
  6. Zhou, J., et al., Flow thermohydraulic characterization of hierarchical-manifold microchannel heat sink with uniform flow distribution, Applied Thermal Engineering, 198 (2021), p. 117510
  7. He, Z., et al., Thermal management and temperature uniformity enhancement of electronic devices by micro heat sinks: A review. Energy, 216 (2021), p. 119223
  8. Sui, Y., et al., Fluid flow and heat transfer in wavy microchannels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 53 (2010), 13-14, pp. 2760-2772
  9. Feng, S., et al., Thermal management of 3D chip with non-uniform hotspots by integrated gradient distribution annular-cavity micro-pin fins, Applied Thermal Engineering, 182 (2021), p. 116132
  10. Kumar, R., et al., Numerical study on mitigation of flow maldistribution in parallel microchannel heat sink: channels variable width versus variable height approach, Journal of Electronic Packaging, 141 (2019), 2, p. 021009
  11. Zhang, D., Investigation on the heat transfer and energy-saving performance of microchannel with cavities and extended surface, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 189 (2022), p. 122712
  12. Ma, D.D., et al., Design study of micro heat sink configurations with offset zigzag channel for specific chips geometrics, Energy Conversion and Management, 127 (2016), pp. 160-169
  13. Vafai, K., Zhu, L., Analysis of two-layered micro-channel heat sink concept in electronic cooling, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 42 (1999), pp. 2287-2297
  14. Zhai, Y.L., et al., Characteristics of entropy generation and heat transfer in double-layered micro heat sinks with complex structure, Energy Conversion and Management, 103 (2015), pp. 477-486
  15. Bejan, A., Constructal-theory network of conducting paths for cooling a heat generating volume, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 40 (1997), 4, pp. 799-816
  16. Alharbi, A.Y., et al., Thermal characteristics of microscale fractal-like branching channels, Journal of Heat Transfer, 126 (2004), 5, pp. 744-752
  17. Chen, Y., et al., An experimental investigation on the thermal efficiency of fractal tree-like microchannel nets, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 32 (2005), 7, pp. 931-938
  18. Xie, G., et al., Constructal design and thermal analysis of microchannel heat sinks with multistage bifurcations in single-phase liquid flow, Applied Thermal Engineering, 62 (2014), 2, pp. 791-802
  19. Hong, F.J., et al., Conjugate heat transfer in fractal-shaped microchannel network heat sink for integrated microelectronic cooling application, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 50 (2007), 25-26, pp.4986-4998
  20. Wei, T., et al., Design and Fabrication of Multi-Layer Silicone Microchannel Cooler for High-Power Chip Array, 22nd International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (ICEPT), Xiamen, China, 2021, pp. 1-5
  21. Ghaedamini, H., et al., The effect of svelteness on the bifurcation angles role in pressure drop and flow uniformity of tree-shaped microchannels, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31 (2011), 5, pp. 708-716
  22. Liu, H., Li, P., Even distribution/dividing of single-phase fluids by symmetric bifurcation of flow channels, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 40 (2013), pp. 165-179
  23. Zhang, C., et al., Investigations of thermal and flow behavior of bifurcations and bends in fractal-like microchannel networks: Secondary flow and recirculation flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 85 (2015), pp. 723-731
  24. Yan, Y., et al., Influence of hydrogels embedding positions on automatic adaptive cooling of hot spot in fractal microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 155 (2020), p. 106428
  25. Ye, Y., et al., Investigation on multidimensional test vehicle for embedded microfluidic cooling performance evaluation, Applied Thermal Engineering, 195 (2021), p. 117149
  26. Yeom, J., Shannon, M. A., 3.16-Micro-Coolers, Comprehensive Microsystems, (2008), pp. 499-550
  27. Zhang, N., et al., Experimental investigation of the embedded micro-channel manifold cooling for power chips, Thermal Science, 26 (2022), 2 Part B, pp. 1531-1543
  28. Moffat, R.J., Describing the uncertainties in experimental results, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 1(1988), 1, pp. 3-17
  29. Chen, Y., et al., Comparative analysis between water-cooled and air-cooled heat dissipation in a high-power light-emitting diode chipset, Journal of Thermal Science and Engineering Applications, 11 (2019), 6, p. 061002