## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### Thermal Science - Online First

online first only
### Optimization of micro-channel heat sink with trapezoidal cavities and solid/slotted oval pins based on genetic algorithm and back propagation neural network

**ABSTRACT**

In order to efficiently solve the problem of optimization of the micro-channel heat sink, an optimization strategy combining intelligent algorithms and computational fluid dynamics was proposed. The micro-channel heat sink with the trapezoidal cavity and solid/slotted oval pins was proposed to enhance heat transfer. The aspect ratio, distance from the center of the oval pin to the center of the cavity, and slot thickness were design variables. The thermal resistance and pumping power of the micro-channel heat sink were objective functions. Within the selected range of design variables, thirty groups of uniformly sampled sample points were obtained by the Latin hypercube experiment. The three-dimensional model was established by Solidworks software, and the numerical simulation was carried out by using Fluent software. The genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network to construct the prediction model, and the simulated data of Latin hypercube sampling were trained to obtain the nonlinear mapping relationship between design variables and objective functions. The optimal combination of structural parameters of the micro-channel heat sink was obtained by optimization of the genetic algorithm, which was verified by numerical simulation. The results show that the optimization scheme was suitable for getting the optimal value of the structural parameters of the micro-channel heat sink, which provided a reference for the optimal design of the micro-channel heat sink.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2022-03-07

PAPER REVISED: 2022-04-01

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-08-11

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2022-09-10

- Wang, T. H., et al., Optimization of a Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sink with Semi-Porous-Ribs by Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 149 (2020), pp. 119217, DOI: 10.1186/s40349-016-0079-2.
- Zeng, S., et al., Thermohydraulic Analysis of a New Fin Pattern Derived from Topology Optimized Heat Sink Structures, International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer, 147 (2020), pp. 118909, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.118909.
- Vinoth, R., Senthil, K. D., Numerical Study of Inlet Cross-section Effect on Oblique Finned Microchannel Heat Sink, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), 6, pp. 2747-2757, DOI: 10.2298/TSCI161119133V.
- Shamsi, M. R., et al., Increasing Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Nanofluid in Rectangular Microchannel with Triangular Ribs, Physica E-Low-Dimensional Systems & Nanostructures, 93 (2017), pp. 167-178, DOI: 10.1016/j.physe.2017.06.015.
- Heydari, A., et al., The Effect of Attack Angle of Triangular Ribs on Heat Transfer of Nanofluids in a Microchannel, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 131 (2018), 3, pp. 2893-2912, DOI: 10.1007/s10973-017-6746-x.
- Chai, L., et al., Thermohydraulic Performance of Microchannel Heat Sinks with Triangular Ribs on Sidewalls-Part 2: Average Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 128 (2019), pp. 634-648, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.09.027.
- Shi, X. J., et al., Geometry Parameters Optimization for a Microchannel Heat Sink with Secondary Flow Channel, International Communications in Heat & Mass Transfer, 104 (2019), pp. 89-100, DOI: 10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2019.03.009.
- Steinke, M. E., Kandlikar, S. G., Single-Phase Heat Transfer Enhancement Techniques in Microchannel and Minichannel Flows, International Conference on Micro-channels and Mini-channels, (2004), pp. 141-148, DOI: 10.1115/icmm2004-2328.
- Kuppusamy, N. R., et al., Numerical Study of Thermal Enhancement in MicroChannel Heat Sink with Secondary Flow, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 78 (2014), pp. 216-223, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.06.072.
- Lin, L., et al., Heat Transfer Enhancement in Micro-channel Heat Sink by Wavy Channel with Changing Wavelength/Amplitude, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 118 (2017), pp. 423-434, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2017.05.013.
- Fan, Y., et al., A Simulation and Experimental Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer on Cylindrical Oblique-Finned Heat Sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 61 (2013), pp. 62-72, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2013.01.075.
- Rajabi, F. B., et al., Effects of Pin Tip-Clearance on the Performance of an Enhanced Micro-channel Heat Sink with Oblique Fins and Phase Change Material Slurry, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 83 (2015), pp. 136-145, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.11.082.
- Chuan, L., et al., Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Micro-channel Heat Sink Based on Porous Fin Design Concept, International Communications in Heat & Mass Transfer, 65 (2015), pp. 52-57, DOI: 10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2015.04.005.
- Shi, X. J., et al., Multi-objective Optimization on the Geometrical Parameters of a Nanofluid-Cooled Rectangular Microchannel Heat Sink, Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University, 52 (2018), 5, pp. 56-61, DOI: 10.7652/xjtuxb201805008.
- Ansari, D., et al., Multi-objective Optimization of a Grooved Microchannel Heat Sink, Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on, 33 (2010), 4, pp. 767-776, DOI: 10.1109/TCAPT.2010.2070874.
- Xia, G. D., et al., Numerical Simulation and Multi-objective Optimization of a Microchannel Heat Sink with Arc-Shaped Grooves and Ribs, Numerical Heat Transfer; Part A: Applications, 70 (2016), 9, pp. 1041-1055, DOI: 10.1080/10407782.2016.1230394.
- Han, J. X., et al., Product Modeling Design Based on Genetic Algorithm and BP Neural Network, Neural Computing and Applications, 33 (2021), 9, pp. 4111-4117, DOI: 10.1007/s00521-020-05604-0.
- Zhang, Y. X., et al., Weld Appearance Prediction with BP Neural Network Improved by Genetic Algorithm During Disk Laser Welding, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 34 (2015), pp.53-59, DOI: 10.1016/j.jmsy.2014.10.005.
- Tam, B. N, Hiroshi, H., Training Artificial Neural Network Using Modification of Differential Evolution Algorithm, International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing, 5 (2015), pp. 1-6, DOI:10.7763/IJMLC.2015.V5.473.
- Rahimi, M., et al., Application of Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Approaches for Prediction of Flow Characteristic in Serpentine Micro-channels, Chemical Engineering Research & Design: Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers Part A, 98 (2015), pp. 147-156, DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2015.05.005.
- Alfellag, M. A., et al., Optimal Hydrothermal Design of Micro-channel Heat Sink Using Trapezoidal Cavities and Solid/Slotted Oval Pins, Applied Thermal Engineering, 158 (2019), pp. 113765, DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.113765.
- McKay, M. D., et al., A Comparison of Three Methods for Selecting Values of Input Variables in The Analysis of Output from a Computer Code, Technometrics, 21 (1979), 2, pp. 239-245, DOI: 10.1080/00401706.2000.10485979.
- Li, L., et al., Multi-Objective Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Sculptured Parts Machining Based on Neural Network, Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 26 (2015), 5, pp. 891-898, DOI: 10.1007/s10845-013-0809-z.