THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Temperature elevation of a human brain induced by a mobile phone electromagnetic radiation

ABSTRACT
This paper analyzes the specific absorption rate and the temperature elevation of the brain within an adult's man head exposed to electromagnetic radiation. The source of electromagnetic radiation is a contemporary mobile phone operating at 900 MHz. Simulations were performed on an anatomically accurate AustinMan 2.6 voxel-based human model with a resolution of 1x1x1 mm3. The thermal analysis focuses on temperature distribution on the brain surface in fixed time steps during one hour of continuous mobile phone use.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2022-07-18
PAPER REVISED: 2022-09-24
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-10-04
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2022-11-12
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI220718165J
REFERENCES
  1. Baan R., et al., Carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, The Lancet Oncology, 12.7 (2011), pp. 624-626
  2. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, ICNIRP statement on the guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz), Health Physics, 97.3 (2009), pp. 257-259
  3. IEEE C95.1-2019, IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields, 0 Hz to 300 GHz, 2019
  4. Federal Communications Commission, Specific absorption rate (SAR) for cellular telephones, 2012
  5. IEC International Electrotechnical Commission, Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Fields from Hand-Held and Body-Mounted Wireless Communication Devices-Human Models, Instrumentation, and Procedures to Determine the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for Hand-Held Devices Used in Close Proximity to the Ear (Frequency Range of 300MHz to 3 GHz), 2005
  6. Huber R., et al., Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure in humans: Estimation of SAR distribution in the brain, effects on sleep and heart rate, Bioelectromagnetics, 24.4 (2003), pp. 262-276.
  7. Kim, J. H., et al., Possible effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure on central nerve system, Biomolecules & Therapeutics, 27.3 (2019), pp. 265-275
  8. Hu, C., et al., Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on neurotransmitters in the brain, Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (2021), no. 691880
  9. Van Den Berg, P. M., et al., A computational model of the electromagnetic heating of biological tissue with application to hyperthermic cancer therapy, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 12 (1983), pp. 797-805
  10. Stanković, V., et al., Temperature distribution and specific absorption rate inside a child's head, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 104 (2017), pp 559-565
  11. Adair, E. R., et al., Minimal changes in hypothalamic temperature accompany microwave‐induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior, Bioelectromagnetics, 5.1 (1984), pp. 13-30.
  12. Tan, C. L., et al., Regulation of body temperature by the nervous system, Neuron, 98.1 (2018), pp. 31-48
  13. Frey, A. H., Headaches from cellular telephones: are they real and what are the implications?, Environmental Health Perspectives, 106.3 (1998), pp. 101-103.
  14. Danker-Hopfe, H., et al., Effects of mobile phone exposure (GSM 900 and WCDMA/UMTS) on polysomnography based sleep quality: An intra-and inter-individual perspective, Environmental Research, 145 (2016), pp. 50-60
  15. Hutter, H. P., et al., Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 63.5 (2006), pp. 307-313
  16. Abdel-Rassoul, G., et al., Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations, Neurotoxicology, 28.2 (2007), pp. 434-440
  17. Swerdlow, A. J., et al., Mobile phones, brain tumors, and the interphone study: where are we now?, Environmental Health Perspectives, 119.11 (2011), pp. 1534-1538
  18. Repacholi, M. H., et al., Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors, Bioelectromagnetics, 33.3 (2012), pp. 187-206
  19. Morgan, L. L., et al., Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A), International Journal of Oncology, 46.5 (2015), pp. 1865-1871
  20. Kodera, S., et al., Temperature elevation in the human brain and skin with thermoregulation during exposure to RF energy, Biomedical Engineering Online, 17.1 (2018), pp 1-17
  21. Kaburcuk, F., Elsherbeni, A. Z., Efficient computation of SAR and temperature rise distributions in a human head at wide range of frequencies due to 5G RF field exposure, The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Journal (ACES), 33.11 (2018), pp. 1236-1242
  22. Weiland, T., A discretization model for the solution of Maxwell's equations for six-component fields, Archiv Elektronik und Uebertragungstechnik, 31 (1977), pp. 116-120
  23. Barchanski, A., et al., Local grid refinement for low-frequency current computations in 3-D human anatomy models, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 42.4 (2006), pp. 1371-1374
  24. Barchanski, A., et al., Large-scale calculation of low-frequency-induced currents in high-resolution human body models, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 43.4 (2007), pp. 1693-1696
  25. Arif, A., et al., A compact, low-profile fractal antenna for wearable on-body WBAN applications, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 18.5 (2019), pp. 981-985
  26. Massey, J. W. Yılmaz, A. E., AustinMan and AustinWoman: High-fidelity, anatomical voxel models developed from the VHP color images, in Proc. 38th Annu. Int. Conf. IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., Orlando, FL, (2016), pp. 3346-3349
  27. Fujimoto, K., et al., Radio-frequency safety assessment of stents in blood vessels during magnetic resonance imaging, Frontiers in Physiology, 9 (2018): 1439.
  28. Wagih, M., et al., Dual-band dual-mode textile antenna/rectenna for simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT), IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 69.10 (2021), pp. 6322-6332
  29. Bisio, I., et al. Brain stroke microwave imaging by means of a Newton-conjugate-gradient method in Lp banach spaces, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 66.8 (2018), pp. 3668-3682.
  30. Kaim, V., et al., Ultra-miniature circularly polarized CPW-fed implantable antenna design and its validation for biotelemetry applications, Scientific Reports, 10.1 (2020), pp. 1-16
  31. Pennes, H. H., Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1.2 (1948), pp. 93-122
  32. McIntosh, R. L., Anderson, V., A comprehensive tissue properties database provided for the thermal assessment of a human at rest, Biophysical Reviews and Letters, 5.03 (2010), pp. 129-151
  33. Hasgall, P. A., et al., IT'IS Database for thermal and electromagnetic parameters of biological tissues, Version 4.1, 2022
  34. IEC/IEEE 62704-4, International standard, 2020
  35. Beard B., et al., Comparisons of computed mobile phone induced SAR in the SAM phantom to that in anatomically correct models of the human head, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 48.2 (2006), pp. 397-407
  36. Kodera, S., et al., Temperature elevation in the human brain and skin with thermoregulation during exposure to RF energy, Biomedical Engineering Online, 17.1 (2018), pp. 1-17
  37. Wessapan, T., et al., Specific absorption rate and temperature distributions in human head subjected to mobile phone radiation at different frequencies, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55.1-3 (2012), pp. 347-359
  38. Christopher, B., et al., Empirical study on specific absorption rate of head tissues due to induced heating of 4G cell phone radiation, Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 178 (2021), p.n. 108910
  39. Van Leeuwen, G. M. J., et al., Calculation of change in brain temperatures due to exposure to a mobile phone, Physics in Medicine & Biology, 44.10 (1999), pp. 2367-2378
  40. Fujimoto, M., et al., FDTD-derived correlation of maximum temperature increase and peak SAR in child and adult head models due to dipole antenna, IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 48.1 (2006), pp. 240-247