International Scientific Journal


Despite many benefits of agricultural biomass utilization as an energy source, there are certain disadvantages such as the possible high emission of NOx. The NOx emission represents one of the key challenges for agricultural biomass use as a fuel. The experimental denitrification chamber was used to evaluate the impact of initial NO content, NH3:NO molar ratio, flue gas temperature, and the temperature difference between two denitrification chamber sections on NOx reduction using ammonia aqueous solution. The optimization of experimental conditions was done in the NO concentration range from 200-800 ppm, NH3:NO molar ratios from 0.31-3 and second chamber section temperature range from 770-67°C. The denitrification process under controlled conditions is the starting point for the optimization of the secondary denitrification technique of selective non-catalytic reduction SNCR process on real-scale plants combusting biomass or any other fuels with increased NOx emission.
PAPER REVISED: 2023-01-31
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2023-02-05
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2023, VOLUME 27, ISSUE Issue 5, PAGES [3635 - 3647]
  1. Marinković, A. D., et al, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Emission from Cigar Burner Combustion System and Comparison of Their Content in Fly Ashes, Thermal Science, 26 (2022), 6A, pp. 4749-4761
  2. Mladenović, M., et al., Denitrification Techniques For Biomass Combustion, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82 (2018), 3, pp. 3350-3364
  3. Giuntoli, J., Characterization of 2nd Generation Biomass under Thermal Conversion and the Fate of Nitrogen, Ph. D. thesis, Delft University of Technology, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering, Milano, Italy, 2010
  4. De Schouwer, F., et al., Protein-Rich Biomass Waste as a Resource for Future Biorefineries: State of the Art, Challenges, and Opportunities, ChemSusChem, 12 (2019), 7, pp. 1272-1303
  5. Dvorak, R., et al., New Approach to Common Removal of Dioxins and NOx as a Contribution Environmental Protection, Journal of Cleaner Production, 18 (2010), 9, pp. 881-888
  6. Petrov, N., Mladenović, M., Legal Limits for NOx Emissions Related to Biomass in EU Countries and Serbia, Innovative Mechanical Engineering, 1 (2022), pp. 93-102
  7. Gholami, F., et al., Technologies for the Nitrogen Oxides Reduction from Flue Gas: A Review, Science of The Total Environment, 714 (2020), 136712
  8. Asghar, U., et al., Review on the Progress in Emission Control Technologies for The Abatement of CO2, Sox and Nox from Fuel Combustion, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 9 (2021), 5, 106064
  9. Yuan, Z., et al., Computational Modelling of Flow Field in Boiler Before and After Urea Injection under Different Conditions, Thermal Science, 25 (2021), 6B, pp. 4667-4681
  10. Sommersacher, P., et al., Application of Novel and Advanced Fuel Characterizationols for the Combustion Related Characterization of Different Wood/Kaolin and Straw/Kaolin Mixtures, Energy and Fuels, 27 (2013), 9, pp. 5192-5206
  11. Katsaros, G., et al., Combustion of Poultry Litter and Mixture of Poultry Litter with Woodchips in a Fixed Bed Lab-Scale Batch Reactor, Fuel, 286 (2021), 1, 119310
  12. Zeng, T., et al., Blended Biomass Pellets as Fuel for Small Scale Combustion Appliances: Influence on Gaseous and Total Particulate Matter Emissions and Applicability of Fuel Indices, Fuel, 184 (2016), Nov., pp. 689-700
  13. Ozgen, S., et al., An Overview of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Biomass Combustion for Domestic Heat Production, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 135 (2021), 110113
  14. Li, Y., et al., Control of NOx Emissions by Air Staging in Small and Medium-Scale Biomass Pellet Boilers, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26 (2019), 10, pp. 9717-9729
  15. Padinger, R., The NOx, Reduction of Biomass Combustion by Optimized Combustion Chamber Design and Combustion Control, in: Progress in Therchemical Biomass Conversion, (Ed. Bridgwater, A.V.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 2008, pp. 918-928
  16. Skalska, K., et al., Trends in NOx Abatement: A review, Science of The Total Environment, 408 (2010), 19, pp. 3976-3989
  17. Yan, J., et al., Enhanced Combustion Behavior and Nox Reduction Performance in a Cfb Combustor by Combining Flue Gas Re-Circulation with Air-Staging: Effect of Injection Position, Journal of the Energy Institute, 96 (2021), June, pp. 294-309
  18. Miller, B. G., Chapter 10 - Formation and Control of Nitrogen oxides, in: Clean Coal Engineering Technology, (2nd ed.), Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, UK, 2017, pp. 507-538
  19. Pronobis, M., Chapter 4 - Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions, in: Environmentally Oriented Modernization of Power Boilers, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2020, pp. 79-133
  20. Sorrels, J. L., Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction, (eds. D. D. F. Randall, C. R. Schaffner, K. S.), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapter 1, 2015
  21. Pronobis, M., et al., Simplified Method for Calculating SNCR System Efficiency, (Eds. W. D. Suwala, M., Leszczynski, J., Lopata, S.), E3S Web of Conferences, Krakow, Poland, 2017, 14, 02003
  22. Zhao, J., et al., Effect of HCl and CO on Nitrogen Oxide Formation Mechanisms within the Temperature Window of SNCR, Fuel, 267 (2020), 117231
  23. Xu, M.-X., et al., Catalytic Oxidation of NH3 over Circulating Ash in the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Process during Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion, Fuel, 271 (2020), 117546
  24. Mahmoudi, S., et al., The NOx Formation and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) in a Fluidized Bed Combustor of Biomass, Biomass and Bioenergy, 34 (2010), 9, pp. 1393-1409
  25. Mladenović, R., et al., The Boiler Concept for Combustion of Large Soya Straw Bales, Energy, 34 (2009), 5, pp. 715-723
  26. Mladenović, M. R., et al., The Combustion of Biomass - The Impact of Its Types and Combustion Technologies on the Emission of Nitrogen Oxide, Hemijska Industrija, 70 (2016), 3, pp. 287-298
  27. Mladenovic, R., et al., Energy Production Facility with Combustion of Large Soya Bean Straw Bales and Thermal Power of 2 MW, Časopis za procesnu tehniku i energetiku u poljoprivredi, 10 (2006), Jan., pp. 38-41
  28. Dao, D. Q., et al., Experimental Study of NO Removal by Gas Reburning and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Using Ammonia in a Lab-Scale Reactor, Energy and Fuels, 24 (2010), 3, pp. 1696-1703
  29. Park, P.-M., et al., Reaction Characteristics of NOx and N2O in Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Using Various Reducing Agents and Additives, Atmosphere, 12 (2021), 9
  30. Toscano, G., Corinaldesi, F., Ash Fusibility Characteristics of Some Biomass Feedstocks and Examination of the Effects of Inorganic Additives, Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 41 (2010), 2, pp. 13-19
  31. Zajac, G., et al., Chemical Characteristics of Biomass Ashes, Energies, 11 (2018), 11
  32. Repić, B. S., et al., Investigation of the Cigar Burner Combustion System for Baled Biomass, Biomass and Bioenergy, 58 (2013), Nov., pp. 10-19
  33. Hao, J., et al., The effects of Na/K Additives and Flyash on NO Reduction in a SNCR Process, Chemosphere, 122 (2015), Mar., pp. 213-218
  34. Chen, J., et al., Effects of O2/CO/CO2 on NH3 reducing NO at 1073-1773 K in Different Flow Reactors - Part Ⅰ: The effect of O2, Fuel, 283 (2021), 119335
  35. Chen, J., et al., Effects of O2/CO/CO2 on NH3 Reducing NO at 1073-1773 K in Different Flow Reactors - Part Ⅱ: The Effects of CO, CO2 and the Complex Atmosphere, Fuel, 288 (2021), 119837
  36. Chen, J., et al., Experimental Study of NH3 Transformation in the CO/O2/CO2 System at 1073-1773 K, Fuel Processing Technology, 217 (2021), 106829
  37. Cao, Q., et al., Experimental and Modelling Study of the Effects of Multicomponent Gas Additives on Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction Process, Chemosphere, 76 (2009), 9, pp. 1199-1205
  38. Liang, L., et al., Influence of Mixing, Oxygen and Residence Time on the SNCR Process, Fuel, 120 (2014), Mar., pp. 38-45
  39. Li, H., et al., Experimental and Modelling Study on de-NOx Characteristics of Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction in O2/CO2 Atmosphere, Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 22 (2014), 8, pp. 943-949

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence