International Scientific Journal


In the present work, we investigated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, metals and ions of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 from 80 samples collected in the microenvironment of a kindergarten located in Belgrade city center during weekdays, from March to May 2010. The daily concentrations of PM2.5 were much higher than WHO guidance daily value. Results show similar factor profiles identified by principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). For indoor and outdoor environment, six principal components were identified by PCA, and six and seven factors were identified by PMF, respectively. Principal components from PCA were attributed to the following sources: combustion processes, traffic emission, coal/oil combustion, mix (stationary sources/resuspension), road salt and secondary aerosol. The resulting factors from PMF were identified as representing combustion processes, traffic emission, coal/oil combustion, soil dust, secondary aerosol and break wear. For outdoor environment, PMF identified one more source, attributed to road dust.
PAPER REVISED: 2022-10-31
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-11-10
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2023, VOLUME 27, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [2215 - 2228]
  1. WHO, Health impact of ambient air pollution in Serbia - A call to action. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Denmark, 2019
  2. Almeida, S. M., et al., Children exposure to atmospheric particles in indoor of Lisbon primary schools, Atmospheric Environment, 45 (2011), 40, pp. 7594-7599
  3. Tofful, L., Perrino, C., Chemical composition of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 in three schools in the city of Rome, Atmosphere, 6 (2015), 10, pp. 1422-1443
  4. Molnár, P., et al., Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 trace elements at homes, preschools and schools in Stockholm, Sweden, Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9 (2007), 4, pp. 348-357
  5. Rivas, I., et al., Child exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in schools in Barcelona, Spain, Environment international, 69 (2014), pp. 200-212
  6. Amato, F., et al., Sources of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools, Science of the Total Environment, 490 (2014), pp. 757-765
  7. Rivas, I., et al., Outdoor infiltration and indoor contribution of UFP and BC, OC, secondary inorganic ions and metals in PM2.5 in schools, Atmospheric Environment, 106 (2015), pp. 129-138
  8. Di Gilio, A., et al., Indoor/outdoor air quality assessment at school near the steel plant in Taranto (Italy), Advances in Meteorology, 161 (2017), pp. 1-7
  9. Pacitto, A., et al., Particle-related exposure, dose and lung cancer risk of primary school children in two European countries, Science of The Total Environment, 616-617 (2018), pp. 720-729
  10. Othman, M., et al., Children's exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents in indoor and outdoor schools urban environment, Atmospheric Environment, 273 (2022), pp. 118963
  11. Kovacevic, R., et al., Preliminary analysis of levels of arsenic and other metallic elements in PM10 sampled near Copper Smelter Bor (Serbia), Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 16 (2010), pp. 269-279
  12. Zivkovic, M., et al., PAHs levels in gas and particle-bound phase in school at different locations in Serbia, Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 21(2015), pp. 159-167
  13. Kim, K.-H., et al., A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter, Environment International, 74 (2015), pp. 136-143
  14. Kim, K.-H., et al., A review of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their human health effects, Environment International, 60 (2013), pp. 71-80
  15. Gray, D.L., Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of metals in ambient particulate matter: A critical review, in: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 234 (Ed. D.M. Whitacre), Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2015, pp. 135-203
  16. US EPA, Polycyclic aromatic matter, US Environmental Protection Agency (2001), Office of Environmental Information, Emergency Planning and Community Right-toKnow Act - Section 313: Guidance for Reporting Toxic Chemicals: Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Category, EPA 260-B-01-03, Washington, DC
  17. IARC, Polynuclear aromatic compounds, Part 1, Chemical, environmental and experimental data. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risk Chem Hum, 32 (1983), pp. 1-453
  18. Brown, S.G., et al., Methods for Estimating Uncertainty in PMF Solutions: Examples with Ambient Air and Water Quality Data and Guidance on Reporting PMF Results, Science of The Total Environment, 518 (2015), pp. 626-635
  19. Paatero P., et al., A graphical diagnostic method for assessing the rotation in factor analytical models of atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric Environment, 39 (2005), pp. 193-201
  20. EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) 5.0 Fundamentals and User Guide, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2014), EPA/600/R-14/108
  21. Fromme, H., et al., Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air, Atmospheric Environment, 42 (2008), pp. 6597-6605
  22. Polednik, B., Particulate matter and student exposure in school classrooms in Lublin, Poland, Environmental Research, 120 (2013), pp. 134-139
  23. Błaszczyk, E., et al., Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in Silesia, Poland, Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health,10 (2017), pp. 1207-1220
  24. Rovelli, S., et al., Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11 (2014), pp. 1398-1421
  25. Oliveira, M., et al., Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3-5 years old children), Environmental Pollution, 208 (2016), pp. 382-394
  26. WHO, WHO global air quality guidelines, Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10),ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide, 2021.
  27. Oliveira, M., et al., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in primary school environments: Levels and potential risks, Science of The Total Environment, 575 (2017), pp. 1156-1167
  28. Krugly, E., et al., Characterization of particulate and vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of primary schools, Atmospheric Environment, 82 (2014), pp. 298-306
  29. Romagnoli, P., et al.,Indoor PAHs at schools, homes and offices in Rome, Italy, Atmospheric Environment, 92 (2014), pp. 51-59
  30. Ravindra, K., et al., Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source attribution, emission factors andregulation, Atmospheric Environment, 42 (2008), pp. 2895-2921
  31. Najmeddin, A., and Keshavarzi, B., Health risk assessment and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 and road deposited dust in Ahvaz metropolis of Iran, Environmental geochemistry and health, 41 (2019), pp. 1267-1290
  32. Stranger, M., et al., Characterization of indoor air quality in primary schools in Antwerp, Belgium, Indoor air, 18 (2008), pp. 454-463
  33. Zwozdyiak, A., et al., Infiltration or indoor sources as determinants of the elemental composition of particulate matter inside a school in Wroclaw, Poland ?, Building and Environment, 66 (2013), pp. 173-180
  34. Fromme, H., et al., Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area, Atmospheric Environment, 41 (2007), pp. 845-866
  35. European Commission, 2008. Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, Official Journal of the European Union, L152 (2008), pp. 1-44
  36. De Santiago, A., et al., Characterization of Selenium in Ambient Aerosols and Primary Emission Sources, Environmental Science and Technology, 48 (2014), pp. 8988-8994
  37. Wang, F., et al., Heavy metal characteristics and health risk assessment of PM2.5 in three residential homes during winter in Nanjing, China, Building and Environment, 143 (2018), pp. 339-348
  38. Savarapu, L.N. and Baek, S., Determination of heavy metals in the ambient atmosphere: A review, Toxicology and Industrial Health, 33 (2017), pp. 79-96
  39. Harrison, R.M., et al., Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Collected from an Urban Location in Birmingham, U.K., Environmental Science and Technology, 30 (1996), pp. 825-832
  40. Vossler, T., et al., Source apportionment with uncertainty estimates of fine particulate matter in Ostrava, Check Republic using Positive Matrix Factorization, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7 (2016), pp. 503-512
  41. Feng, S., et al., Leachates of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash from Macao: Heavy metal concentrations and genotoxicity, Chemosphere, 67 (2007), pp. 1133-1137
  42. Błaszczak, B., The Use of Principal Component Analysis for Source Identification of PM2.5 from Selected Urban and Regional Background Sites in Poland, Air Protection in Theory and Practice, E3S Web of Conferences 28, 01001 (2018) (

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence