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This paper shows that a spider is a spinning master and a printing expert as well. Firstly, a spider can produce different types of silks by controlling the spinning process, which is correlated with silk properties. Understanding the natural spinning process can greatly help for the improvement of artificial spinning processes to control the products' quality. Here we show the periodic motion of muscles connected to the spinnerets plays an important role in controlling the spinning process and the silk properties, which leads to a zero resistance of the viscous flow in the gland duct and ordered macromolecules in the silk. We anticipate this finding can promote a sophisticated study of other animals' spinning properties and bio-inspired design of artificial spinning processes. Secondly, the spider web is not weaved, but it is printed, the process is similar to the modern 3-D printing technology. Finally, a spider-inspired 4-D printing technology is suggested.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-10-05
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-10-05
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THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [2471 - 2475]
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© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence