International Scientific Journal


Fuel burning rate plays a major role in optimizing the performance of internal combustion engine with reduced emission. In an attempt to optimize the performance of internal combustion engine, a novel empirical correlation is developed for fuel burning duration in tune with the methodology proposed by an earlier investigator for spark-ignition engine. The correlation was integrated with the quasi-dimensional mathematical model to analyse the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of engine. Engine speed and fuel injection timing were varied to assess the performance and corresponding exhaust emission of engine. Predictions relating to variation of burning duration with compression ratio at different equivalence ratios are in reasonable agreement with the published data on burning duration. The simulated results show that the optimum injection timing lies in the range of 23 °bTDC to 13 °bTDC for brake power and indicated power both, and the lowest brake specific fuel consumption and indicated specific fuel consumption were found close to 13 °bTDC. A sharp decrease in peak cylinder pressure was also observed with retarding injection timing, whereas both the retarding injection timing and increased engine speed accrue to reduced nitric oxide exhaust at exhaust valve open. This article has been corrected. Link to the correction 10.2298/TSCI180730232E
PAPER REVISED: 2018-04-24
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-04-30
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [1311 - 1323]
  1. M.K. Gajendra Babu and K.A. Subramanian. Alternative Transportation Fuels (Utilization in Combustion Engines). CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group (2013).
  2. R.D. Reitz, F.V. Bracco, On the Dependence of Spray Angle and other Spray Parameters on Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions, SAE 1979 paper number 790494.
  3. F. Caresana, Impact of biodiesel bulk modulus on injection pressure and injection timing. The effect of residual pressure, Fuel 90 (2011), 477-485.
  4. Dhananjaya, D. A., et al., Combustion Characteristics of diesel Engine Operating on Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester, Thermal Science, 14 (2010), 4, 965-977.
  5. Knežević, D., et al., The Characteristics of Combustion Process of diesel Engine Using Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters, Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 6, pp. 2255-2263.
  6. Mikulski M and Wierzbicki S. Validation of a zero-dimensional and two-phase combustion model for dual-fuel compression ignition engine simulation, Thermal Science, 21( 2017,),1B, 387-399.
  7. Rakopoulos CD, Antonopoulos KA, Rakopoulos DC. Multi-zone modeling of diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or diesel fuels, Energy Convers. Manage. 47(2006), 1550-1573.
  8. Sanjay Patil, Thermodynamic modelling for performance analysis of compression ignition engine fuelled with biodiesel and its blends with diesel, Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng. (IJRTE) 1 (2013), 134-138.
  9. S. Awad, E.G. Varuvel, K. Loubar, M. Tazerout, Single zone combustion modeling of biodiesel from wastes in diesel engine, Fuel 106(2013), 558-568.
  10. D.C. Rakopoulos, C.D. Rakopoulos, E.G. Giakoumis, R.G. Papagiannakis, D.C. Kyritsis, Experimental-stochastic investigation of the combustion cyclic variability in HSDI diesel engine using ethanol-diesel fuel blends, Fuel 87(2008), 1478-1491.
  11. Ramadhas AS, Jayaraj S and Muraleedharan C. Theoretical modeling and experimental studies on biodiesel-fueled engine, Renewable Energy, 31(2006), 1813-1826.
  12. Sivalingam M, Mahapatra SS, Hansdah D, Horak B. Validation of some engine combustion and emission parameters of a bioethanol fuelled DI diesel engine using theoretical modelling, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 54(2015), 993-1002.
  13. Shipinski J, Uyehara OA, and Myers PS. Experimental Correlation between Rate-o-Injection and Rate-of-Heat-Release in a Diesel Engine, ASME, New York, 1968, paper number 68-DGP-11.
  14. Watson N, Pilley AD, Marzaouk MA. A combustion correlation for diesel engine simulation, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., SAE 1980 paper number 800029.
  15. Weibe I. Halbempirische Formel dur die Verbrennungsgeshwindigkeit, in Kraftstoffaufbereitung and Verbrennung bei Dieselmotoren, ed. G. Sitkei, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1964), 156-159.
  16. Bayraktar H and Durgun O. Development of an empirical correlation for combustion durations in spark ignition engines, Energy Conversion and Management, 45(2004), 1419-1431.
  17. Kumar TA, Chandramouli R, Mohanraj T. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 121(2015), 51-56.
  18. Agarwal AK, Dhar A, Gupta J G, Kim WI, Choi K, Lee CS, Park S. Effect of fuel injection pressure and injection timing of Karanja biodiesel blends on fuel spray, engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics, Energy Conversion and Management, 91(2015), 302-314.
  19. Whitehouse ND and Sareen BK. Prediction of heat release in quiescent chamber diesel engine allowing for fuel/air mixing, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich, SAE 1974 paper number 740054.
  20. Kumar K, Babu MKG, Gaur RR and Garg RD. A thermodynamic simulation model for four stroke medium speed diesel engine, SAE International Congress and Exposition, Detroit, Mich., SAE 1984 paper number 840516.
  21. D Mehrnoosh, HA Asghar and MA Asghar. Thermodynamic model for prediction of performance and emission characteristics of SI engine fueled by gasoline and natural gas with experimental verification, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 26 (2012), 2213-2225.
  22. JH Horlock and DE Witerbone. "Thermodynamics and gas dynamics of Internal Combustion Engine. Voll. II" Oxford: Clerendon press 1986.
  23. WJD Annand. Heat Transfer in the cylinders of Reciprocating I.C Engines. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 177 (1963), 973-90.
  24. Tirkey JV, Gupta HN, Shukla SK. Integrated Gas Dynamic and Thermodynamic Computational Modeling of Multicylinder 4-stroke SI engine using Gasoline as a fuel, International journal of Thermal Science, 13 (2009), 113-130.
  25. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals By John B Heywood (Professor of Mechanical Engineering Director, Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology) McGraw-Hill Series in Mechanical Engineering.
  26. Lavoie GA, Heywood JB and Keck JC. Experimental and theoretical study of nitric oxide formation in internal combustion engines, Combust. Sci. Tech. 1(1970), 313-326.
  27. Dhar A, Agarwal AK. Performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Karanja biodiesel in a transportation engine, Fuel, 119(2014), 70-80.
  28. Rajasekar E, Selvi S. Review of combustion characteristics of CI engines fueled with biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 35 (2014), 390-399.
  29. T. Ganapathy, R.P. Gakkhar, K. Murugesan, Influence of injection timing on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel engine, Appl. Energy 88 (2011), 4376-4386.
  30. Tesfa B, Mishra R, Zhang C, Gu F, Ball AD. Combustion and performance characteristics of CI (compression ignition) engine running with biodiesel, Energy 51 (2013) ,101-115.
  31. Meng X, Chen G, Wang Y. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via alkali catalyst and its engine test. Fuel Processing Technology Sep. 89 (2008), 9, 851-7.
  32. Sayin Cenk, Ilhan Murat, Canakci Mustafa, Gumus Metin. Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel-methanol blends, Renew Energy; 34(2009), 1261-9.
  33. Puhan Sukumar, Vedaraman N, Sankaranarayanan G, Ram BVB. Performance and emission study of Mahua oil (madhucaindica oil) ethyl ester in a 4-stroke natural aspirated direct injection diesel engine, Renew Energy, 30(2005), 1269-78.
  34. Gnanasekaran S, N Saravanan, Ilangkumaran M. Influence of injection timing on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine running on fish oil biodiesel, Energy, 116(2016), 1218-1229.

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence