International Scientific Journal


Thermal comfort sensation can be predicted in the most exact way based on Fanger’s predicted mean vote (PMV) model. This evaluation method takes all the six influencing factors into consideration: air temperature and humidity, air velocity, mean radiant temperature of surrounding surfaces, clothing insulation, and occupants’ activities. Fanger’s PMV method was developed for temperate climate and European people, with the participation of university students as subjects. Many researchers had investigated its validity in different geographic locations (i. e. climatic conditions, people) and under non-laboratory circumstances. The results were summarised by van Hoof which had been published in the scientific references. The articles gave us the idea to elaborate the former measurement results. During the last decades thermal comfort was evaluated by our research team using subjective scientific questionnaires and applying the objective Fanger’s model in several office buildings in Hungary. The relation between the PMV and actual mean vote values were analysed based on these results. Investigations were carried out under steady-state conditions in winter time. We performed objective thermal comfort evaluations based on instrumental measurements using the PMV theory. Parallel to this we assessed the subjective thermal sensation using scientific questionnaires. The mathematical relationship between the actual mean vote and PMV was defined according to the evaluated thermal environment: AMV = PMV + 0.275, (arg. –1.7 ≤ PMV ≤ +0.5).
PAPER REVISED: 2016-03-12
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-04-28
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2017, VOLUME 21, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [1409 - 1418]
  1. P. O. Fanger: Calculation of thermal comfort: introduction of a basic comfort equation. ASHRAE Trans. (1967) 73, pp. III.4.1-III.4.20.
  2. B. W. Olesen, E. Sliwinski, T. L. Madsen, P. O. Fanger: The effect of posture and activity on the thermal insulation of clothing: measurement by a moveable thermal manikin. ASHRAE Trans. (1982) 88, pp. 791-805.
  3. B. W. Olesen, R. Nielsen: A comparison of the thermal insulation measured on a thermal manikin and on human subjects. Indoor Air (1984) Vol. 5, Stockholm, pp. 315-320.
  4. D. P. Wyon: Assessment of human thermal requirements in the thermal comfort region. Thermal Comfort, Past, Present and Future, Garston (1994) pp. 144-156.
  5. S. Tanabe, Y. Hasebe, K. Kimura: Reduction of clo value with increased air movement. Indoor Air (1993) Vol. 6, Helsinki, pp. 139-144.
  6. J. van Hoof: Forty years of Fanger's model of thermal comfort: comfort for all. Indoor Air Journal Vol. 18. (2008) pp. 182-201.
  7. W. C. Howell, P. A. Kennedy: Field validation of the Fanger thermal comfort model. Hum. Factors, (1979) 21, pp. 229-239.
  8. Y. Fan, S. Lang, W. Xu: Fields study on acceptable thermal conditions for residental buildings in transition zone of China. Indoor Air (1993) Vol. 6, Helsinki, pp. 109-114.
  9. B. Cao, Y. Zhu, Q. Ouyang, X. Zhou, L. Huang: Field study of human thermal comfort and thermal adaptability during the summer and winter in Beijing. Energy and Buildings Vol. 43, Issue 5 SPEC. ISS., May (2011), pp. 1051-1056.
  10. J. van Hoof, J. M. L. Hensen: Quantifying of relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones. Building and Environment (2007) 42, pp. 156-170.
  11. J. van Hoof, J. M. L. Hensen: Thermal comfort and older adults. Gerontechnology (2006) 4, pp. 223-228.
  12. D. J. Croome, G. Gan, H. B. Awbi: Thermal comfort and air quality in offices. Indoor Air (1993) Vol. 6, Helsinki, pp. 37-42.
  13. R. Kosonen, F.Tan: Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index. Energy and Buildings Vol. 36, Issue 10 SPEC. ISS., October (2004), pp. 987-993.
  14. L. Lan, P. Wargocki, Z. Lian: Quantitative measurement of productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Energy and Buildings Vol. 43, Issue 5 SPEC. ISS., May (2011), pp. 1057-1062.
  15. I. Erdősi, L. Kajtár: Evaluation of ventilation system of CIB Bank headquarters. Budapest (1996) p. 40
  16. I. Erdősi, L. Kajtár, L. Bánhidi: Thermal comfort in climatized office buildings. Washington, USA. Healthy Buildings Conference. Proceedings Volume 2. (1997) pp. 207-213.
  17. I. Erdősi, L. Kajtár, L. Bánhidi: Thermal comfort in climatized office building in winter. Atlanta, USA. Design, Construction and Operation of Healthy Building/ASHRAE. (1998) pp. 179-185.
  18. L. Kajtár, L. Bánhidi, Zs. Bakó-Bíró: Thermal and air quality comfort in the hungarian office buildings. Miami Beach, USA. Proceedings of the Second NSF International Conference on Indoor Air Health, (2001) pp. 270-278.
  19. Ketskeméty L. - Kajtár L.: Légállapot és hőérzeti mérések adatainak statisztikai elemzése, (Statistic analysis of air state and thermal sensation data) TÁMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002, FE-P3-T2 project. Bp. 2011. p.44
  20. S. Pavlović, D. Vasiljević, V. Stefanović, Z. Stamenković, S. Ayed: "Optical model and numerical simulation of the new offset type parabolic concentrator with two types of solar receivers receivers". FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Series: Mechanical Engineering Vol. 13, No 2, 2015, pp. 169 - 180.
  21. A. Rétfalvi: Fixture Design System with Automatic Generation and Modification of Complementary Elements for Modular Fixtures. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 12, No. 7, 2015. pp.163-182.
  22. J. Nyers, S. Tomic, A. Nyers: "Economic Optimum of Thermal Insulating Layer for External Wall of Brick". International J. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica Vol. 11, No. 7, pp. 209-222. 2014.

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence