International Scientific Journal


This study covers the thermal degradation of polycarbonate by means of Thermogravimetric Analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TGA-FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis of polycarbonate was carried out at four different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20°C per minute from 25°C to 1000°C under nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicated that polycarbonate was decomposed in the temperature range of 425-600°C. The kinetic parameters, such as activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order were determined using five different kinetic models; namely Coast-Redfern, Friedman, Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS). Overall decomposition reaction order was determined by Coats-Redfern method as 1.5. Average activation energy was calculated as 150.42, 230.76, 216.97, and 218.56 kJ/mol by using Kissinger, Friedman, FWO, and KAS models, respectively. Furthermore, the main gases released during the pyrolysis of polycarbonate were determined as CO2, CH4, CO, H2O, and other lower molecular weight hydrocarbons such as aldehydes, ketones and carbonyls by using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.
PAPER REVISED: 2014-04-03
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2014-04-04
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2014, VOLUME 18, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [833 - 842]
  1. Feng, J., et al., Using TGA/FTIR TGA/MS and Cone Calorimetry to Understand Thermal Degradation and Flame Retardancy Mechanism of Polycarbonate Filled with Solid Bisphenol A Bis(Diphenyl Phosphate) and Montmorillonite, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 97 (2012), 4, pp. 605-614
  2. ***, The Prospector Materials Database,
  3. Fasina, O., Littlefield, B., TG-FTIR Analysis of Pecan Shells Thermal Decomposition, Fuel Processing Technology, 102 (2012), Oct., pp. 61-66
  4. Slopiecka, K., et al., Thermogravimetric Analysis and Kinetic Study of Poplar Wood Pyrolysis, Applied Energy, 97 (2012), Sept., pp. 491-497
  5. Ounas, A., et al., Pyrolysis of Olive Residue and Sugar Cane Bagasse: Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetric Kinetic Analysis, Bioresource Technology, 102 (2011), 24, pp. 11234-11238
  6. Zhou, L., et al., Co-Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Coal and Plastic Blends, Energy Conversion and Managements, 50 (2009), 3, pp. 705-710
  7. Singh, S., et al., Pyrolysis of Waste Materials Using TGA-MS and TGA-FTIR as Complementary Characterization Techniques, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 94 (2012), Mar., pp. 99-107
  8. Jang, B. N., Wilkie C. A., A TGA/FTIR and Mass Spectral Study on the Thermal Degradation of Bisphenol A Polycarbonate, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 86 (2004), 3, pp. 419-430
  9. Uyar, T., et al., Thermal Degradation of Polycarbonate, Poly(Vinyl Acetate) and Their Blends, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91 (2006), 12, pp. 2960-2967
  10. Bozi, J., et al., Thermal Decomposition of Flame Retarded Polycarbonates, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 79 (2007), 1-2, pp. 337-345
  11. Coats, A. W., Redfern, J. P., Kinetic Parameters from Thermogravimetric Data, Nature, 201 (1964), Jan., pp. 68-69
  12. Friedman, H. L., Kinetics of Thermal Degradation of Char-Forming Plastics from Thermogravimetry: Application to a Phenolic Plastic, Journal of Polymer Science Part C: Polymer Symposia, 6 (1964), 1, pp. 183-195
  13. Kissinger, H. E., Reaction Kinetics in Differential Thermal Analysis, Analytical Chemistry, 29 (1957), 11, pp. 1702-1706
  14. Ozawa, T., A New Method of Analyzing Thermogravimetric Data, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 38 (1965), 11, pp. 1881-1886
  15. Flynn, H., Wall, L. A., A Quick, Direct Method for the Determination of Activation Energy from Thermogravimetric Data, Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Letters, 4 (1966), 5, pp. 323-328
  16. Akahira, T., Sunose, T., Method of Determining Activation Deterioration Constant of Electrical Insulating Materials, Research Report of Chiba Institute of Technology, 16, 1971, pp. 22-31
  17. Y. Yang, et al., Catalytic Pyrolysis of Tobacco Rob: Kinetic Study and Fuel Gas Produced, Bioresource Technology, 102 (2011), 3, pp. 11027-11033
  18. Jiang, Z., et al., The Pyrolysis Characteristics of Moso Bamboo, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 94 (2012), pp. 48-52
  19. Corres, M. A., et al., Thermal and Termo-Oxidative Degradation of Poly(Hydroxyl Ether of Bisphenol- A) Studied by TGA/FTIR and TGA/MS, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 92 (2011), 2, pp. 407-416
  20. Khawam, A., Application of Solid-State Kinetics of Desolvation, University of Iowa, Ia., USA, 2011
  21. White, J. E., et al., Biomass Pyrolysis Kinetics: A Comparative Critical Review with Relevant Agricultural Residue Case Studies, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 91 (2011), 1, pp. 1-33
  22. Gao, W., et al., Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Tobacco Residues from the Cigarette Industry, Industrial Crops and Products, 44 (2013), Jan., pp. 152-157
  23. Sait, H. H., et al., Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Date Palm Biomass Using Thermogravimetric Analysis, Bioresource Technology, 118 (2012), Aug., pp. 382-389
  24. Jankovic, B., Smiciklas, I., The Non-Isothermal Combustion Process of Hydrogen Peroxide Treated Animal Bones: Kinetic Analysis, Thermochimica, 521 (2011), 1-2, pp. 130-138
  25. Damartzis, Th., et al., Thermal Degradation Studies and Kinetic Modeling of Cardoon (Cynara Cardunculus) Pyrolysis Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Bioresource Technology, 102 (2011), 10, pp. 6230-6238
  26. Cunliffe, A. M., et al., Recycling of Fibre-Reinforced Polymeric Waste by Pyrolysis: Thermo- Gravimetric And Bench-Scale Investigations, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis, 70 (2003), 2, pp. 315-338
  27. Zhu, H. M., et al., Study on Pyrolysis of Typical Medical Waste Materials by Using TG-FTIR Analysis, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 153 (2008), 1-2, pp. 670-676
  28. Cervantes-Uc, J. M., et al., TGA/FTIR Study on Thermal Degradation of Polymethacrylates Containing Carboxylic Groups, Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91 (2006), 12, pp. 3312-3321

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence