International Scientific Journal


Experiments were carried out in a spark-ignition engine fueled with iso-propanol/gasoline blends. Emission characteristics of this engine were investigated experimentally, including gaseous emissions (HC, CO, NOx) and particulate matter emission in term of number and size distributions. The effects of different iso-propanol percentages, loads and exhaust gas recirculation rates on emissions were analyzed. Results show that the introduction of exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx emission and NOx emission gives the highest value at full load condition. HC and CO emissions present inconspicuous variations at all the loads except the load of 10%. Additionally, HC emission shows a sharp increase for pure propanol when the exhaust gas recirculation rate is up to 5%, while little variation is observed at lager exhaust gas recirculation rates. Moreover, the particulate matter number concentration increases monotonically with the increase of load and the decrease of exhaust gas recirculation rate. There exists a critical spark timing that produces the highest particulate matter number concentration at all the blending ratios.
PAPER REVISED: 2013-06-18
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2013-06-24
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2014, VOLUME 18, ISSUE Issue 1, PAGES [269 - 277]
  1. ***, Clean Energy Progress Report, International Energy Agency, 2011.
  2. Abu-Zaid, M., et al., Effect of Methanol Addition on the Performance of Spark Ignition Engines, Energy & Fuels, 18 (2004), 2, pp. 312-315.
  3. Bilgin, A., et al., Effects of Methanol Addition to Gasoline on the Performance and Fuel Cost of a Spark Ignition Engine, Energy & Fuels, 22 (2008), 4, pp. 2782-2788.
  4. Cheung, C. S., et al., Experimental Investigation of Regulated and Unregulated Emissions from a Diesel Engine Fueled with Ultra low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Blended with Ethanol and Dodecanol, Atmospheric Environment, 42 (2008), 39, pp. 8843-8851.
  5. Zhao, H., et al., Carbonyl Compound Emissions from Passenger Cars Fueled with Methanol/Gasoline Blends, Science of The Total Environment, 408 (2010), 17, pp. 3607-3613.
  6. Zhu, L., et al., Emissions Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating on Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blended with Ethanol and Methanol, Science of The Total Environment, 408 (2010), 4, pp. 914-921.
  7. Dernotte, J., et al., Evaluation of Butanol-Gasoline Blends in a Port Fuel-Injection, Spark-Ignition Engine, Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue de l'Institut Français du Pétrole, 65 (2009), 2, pp. 345-351.
  8. Gu, X., et al., Emission Characteristics of a Spark-Ignition Engine Fueled With Gasoline-n-Butanol Blends in Combination with EGR, Fuel, 93 (2012), pp. 611-617.
  9. Irimescu, A., Performance and Fuel Conversion Efficiency of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with iso-Butanol, Applied Energy, 96 (2012), pp. 477-483.
  10. Yacoub, Y., et al., The Performance and Emission Characteristics of C1-C5 Alcohol-Gasoline Blends with Matched Oxygen Content in a Single-Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 212 (1998), 5, pp. 363-379.
  11. Campos-Fernández, J., et al., A Comparison of Performance of Higher Alcohols/Diesel Fuel Blends in a Diesel Engine, Applied Energy, 95 (2012), pp. 267-275.
  12. Gravalos, I., et al., Emissions Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engine Operating on Lower-Higher Molecular Mass Alcohol Blended Gasoline Fuels, Renewable Energy, 50 (2013), pp. 27-32.
  13. Kelkar, A. D., et al., Comparative Study of Methanol, Ethanol, Isopropanol, and Butanol as Motor Fuels, either Pure or Blended with Gasoline, Proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Vol.4 (1988), pp. 381-386.
  14. Saeed, M. N., et al., Combustion Phenomena of Alcohols in C. I. Engine, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 111 (1989), 3, pp. 439-444.
  15. Keskin, A., et al., The Effects of Ethanol and Propanol Additions into Unleaded Gasoline on Exhaust and Noise Emissions of a Spark Ignition Engine, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 33 (2011), 23, pp. 2194-2205.
  16. Lü, X., et al., Heat Release Analysis on Combustion and Parametric Study on Emissions of HCCI Engines Fueled with 2-Propanol/n-Heptane Blend Fuels, Energy & Fuels, 20 (2006), 5, pp. 1870-1878.
  17. ***, Global Fuel Economy Initiative 2012-2015.
  18. Environmental Protection Agency.
  19. ***, PM Stander.
  20. Zhu, R., et al., Experimental Investigation on Particulate Emissions of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel-Diethyl Adipate Blends, Journal of Aerosol Science, 42 (2011), 4, pp. 264-276.
  21. Wang, R., et al., Soot and PAH Production from Spray Combustion of Different Hydrocarbons Behind Reflected Shock Waves, Combustion and Flame, 112 (1998), 3, pp. 359-370.
  22. Kim, H., et al., Measurement of Size Distribution of Diesel Particles: Effects of Instruments, Dilution Methods, and Measuring Positions, International journal of automotive technology, 6 (2005), 2, pp. 119-124.
  23. Tsolakis, A., et al., Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Operation Using H2. Effect on Particulate Emissions, Energy & Fuels, 19 (2005), 2, pp. 418-425.
  24. Gu, X., et al., Laminar Burning Velocities and Flame Instabilities of Butanol Isomers-Air Mixtures, Combustion and Flame, 157 (2010), 12, pp. 2318-2325.
  25. ***, ELPI User Manual. In Dekati Ltd., Eampere, Finland, 2010.
  26. Marjamäki, M., et al. Electrical Filter Stage for the ELPI, SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0055, 2002.
  27. Kulkarni, P., et al., Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications. Wiley, 2011.
  28. Kayes, D., et al., Mechanisms of Particulate Matter Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines. 1. Effect of Engine Operating Conditions, Environmental Science & Technology, 33 (1999), 22, pp. 3957-3967.
  29. Kayes, D., et al., Mechanisms of Particulate Matter Formation in Spark-Ignition Engines. 3. Model of PM Formation, Environmental Science & Technology, 33 (1999), 22, pp. 3978-3992.
  30. Moon, G., et al., Emission Characteristics of Diesel, Gas to Liquid, and Biodiesel-Blended Fuels in a Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars, Fuel, 89 (2010), 12, pp. 3840-3846.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence