THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

Authors of this Paper

External Links

online first only

Building integrated photovoltaics - technology status

ABSTRACT
BIPV modules provide a high degree of design possibilities and additional functionalities in combination with the plain electricity generation well known for standard photovoltaic installations. Consequently, the specialized know-how to understand BIPV, properly design and manufacture them requires much more than the electrical knowledge developed and applied in standard photovoltaic systems. Expertise of building physics and building regulations are also required on a high level. As BIPV modules are usually custom designed, typical electrical design and simulation tools cannot be used without modifications, while deeper insight of complex shading influences and specialized overall system design are advantageous. Authors of this publication were involved in well over 1000 BIPV system designs and developments, and their experiences are shared. Recurring questions, issues and mistakes of various BIPV projects are touched, whereas special emphasis is provided on BIPV engineering procedures, system design complexity, as well as shading issues and differentiation of shading according to their origin.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2020-09-29
PAPER REVISED: 2020-10-05
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-10-22
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2020-12-05
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI200929342S
REFERENCES
  1. Erban, C., Ley, H., Results from the worldwide performed questionnaire - BIPV market, technology and preferences, EU PVSEC 2020, Lisbon, Portugal, 2020.
  2. Stamenic Lj, Developments with BIPV systems in Canada, Asian Journal of Energy & Environment, JGSEE, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp. 349-366, ISSN 1513-4121, 2004.
  3. Shukla A. K., Sudhakar K., Baredar P., Mamat R., BIPV in Southeast Asian countries - opportunities and challenges, Renewable Energy Focus, Volume 21, 2017.
  4. Peng C., Huanga Y., Wu Z., Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in architectural design in China, Energy and Buildings 43, 3592-3598, 2011.
  5. Stamenic Lj, Canadian photovoltaics in buildings, POWER-GEN Renewable Energy & Fuels, Las Vegas - USA, 2007.
  6. Olivieri L., Caamano-Martin E., Olivier F., Neila J., Integral energy performance characterization of semi-transparent photovoltaic elements for building integration under real operation conditions, Energy and Buildings 68, 280-291, 2014.
  7. BjørnPetter Jelle, Breivik C., Røkenes H. D., Building integrated photovoltaic products: A state-of-the-art review and future research opportunities, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 100, 69-96, 2012.
  8. Quesada G., Rousse D., Dutil Y., Badache M., Halle S., A comprehensive review of solar facades. Opaque solar facades, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, 2820- 2832, 2012.
  9. Kuhn T., Attractive and cost effective BIPV products, Amann U., Characterization of facades and Building Components, Franuhofer ISE Annual Report 2017/2018, Page 52 and 68, 2018.
  10. Stamenić Lj., Stojanović M., Erban C., "Experiences with the first grid-tied BIPV system in Serbia", 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa - Hawaii, 2006.
  11. Kuhn T.E., Erban C., Heinrich M., Eisenlohr J., Ensslen F., Neuhaus D.H., Review of Technological Design Options for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV), Energy & Buildings, doi: doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2020.110381, 2020.
  12. Erban C., Challenges and Obstacles for BIPV; 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition PVSEC 2006, Dresden, Germany, 2006.
  13. Celik B., Karatepe E., Gokmen N., Silvestre S., A virtual reality study of surrounding obstacles on BIPV systems for estimation of long-term performance of partially shaded PV arrays, Renewable Energy 60, 402e414, 2013.
  14. Bojović, V., The analysis of solar gains calculation methodology defined in SRPSEN ISO 13790, through the use of software for numerical simulation, THERMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 22, Suppl. 4, pp. S1095-S1104, 2018.
  15. Haedrich I., Eitner U., Wiese M., Wirth H., "Unified methodology for determining CTM ratios: Systematic prediction of module power", Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Volume 131, 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2014.06.025.
  16. SmartCalc.CTM, Cell to module analysis software tool by Fraunhofer ISE, www.cell-to-module.com.
  17. Røyset A., Kolås T., BjørnPetter Jelle, Coloured building integrated photovoltaics: Influence on energy efficiency, Energy & Buildings 208, 109623, 2020.
  18. Lynn N., Mohanty L., Wittkopf S., Color rendering properties of semi-transparent thin-film PV modules, Building and Environment 54, 148e158, 2012.
  19. Defaix P. R., van Sark W.G.J.H.M, Worrell E., de Visser E., Technical potential for photovoltaics on buildings in the EU-27, Solar Energy 86, 2644-2653, 2012.
  20. Sun L.L., Yang H. X., Impacts of the shading-type building-integrated photovoltaic claddings on electricity generation and cooling load component through shaded windows, Energy and Buildings 42, 455-460, 2010.
  21. Wilson H. R.: Polarisationseffekte bei winkelabhängigen Messungen von Reflexion und Transmission, Colloquium Optische Spektrometrie COSP 2007, Berlin, 2007.
  22. Platzer W.: Angular-dependent Light and Total Solar Energy Transmittance for Complex Glazings, Final Report of the EU-funded ALTSET project, Contract No. SMT4-CT96-209, Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg 2000.
  23. Ordoumpozanis, K., Theodosiou T., Bouris D., Tsikaloudaki K., Energy and thermal modeling of building Facade integrated photovoltaics, THERMAL SCIENCE, Vol. 22, Suppl. 3, pp. S921-S932, 2018.
  24. Norton B., Eames P. C., Mallick T. K., Huang M. J., Enhancing the performance of building integrated photovoltaics, Solar Energy 85, 1629-1664, 2011.
  25. Stamenic Lj., Smiley E.,Karim K., Low light conditions modelling for BIPV systems, Solar Energy Journal, Elsevier Science, Vol. 77/1, pp. 37, 2004.
  26. Gholami H., Røstvik H. N., Müller-Eie D, Holistic economic analysis of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) system: Case studies evaluation, Energy & Buildings 203, 109461, 2019.
  27. Hammond G., Harajli H., Jones C., Winnett A., Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations, Energy Policy 40, 219-230, 2012.
  28. James T., Goodrich A., Woodhouse M., Margolis R., Ong S., Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) in the Residential Sector: An Analysis of Installed Rooftop System Prices, Technical Report, NREL/TP-6A20-53103, 2011.
  29. Erban C., PM1 Building integrated PV workshop; 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 2017.
  30. Multifunctional Characterisation of BIPV, Proposed Topics for Future International Standardisation Activities, IEA-PVPS T15-11, 2020.