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Simplified calculation method of annual incoming solar energy on tilted and oriented surfaces for the Carpathian basin

ABSTRACT
The present paper aims at introducing a simplified method of manual calculation of annual incoming solar energy on any tilted and oriented surface using annual horizontal global radiation or sunshine duration hours as input. The proposed simplified formula is developed for the Carpathian basin and can be used in 8 countries with a total geographical area of 483 495 km2. In prospect, a similar formula can be determined for other regions applying the presented methodology. In our work we used the following: the open access CarpatClim database as input data, the Liu-Jordan model as detailed method that was validated with measurement data. The simplified method was developed and validated by use of various statistical approaches and methods.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2017-05-25
PAPER REVISED: 2018-01-24
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-02-08
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2018-04-28
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI170525120H
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