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In this study, the importance of air temperature from different aspects (e. g., human and plant health, ecological and environmental processes, urban planning, and modelling) is presented in detail, and the major factors affecting air temperature in urban areas are introduced. Given the importance of air temperature, and the necessity of developing high-resolution spatio-temporal air-temperature maps, this paper categorizes the existing approaches for air temperature estimation into three categories (interpolation, regression, and simulation approaches) and reviews them. This paper focuses on high-resolution air temperature mapping in urban areas, which is difficult due to strong spatio-temporal variations. Different air temperature mapping approaches have been applied to an urban area (Berlin, Germany) and the results are presented and discussed. This review paper presents the advantages, limitations, and shortcomings of each approach in its original form. In addition, the feasibility of utilizing each approach for air temperature modelling in urban areas was investigated. Studies into the elimination of the limitations and shortcomings of each approach are presented, and the potential of developed techniques to address each limitation is discussed. Based upon previous studies and developments, the interpolation, regression and coupled simulation techniques show potential for spatio-temporal modelling of air temperature in urban areas. However, some of the shortcomings and limitations for development of high-resolution spatio-temporal maps in urban areas have not been properly addressed yet. Hence, some further studies into the elimination of remaining limitations, and improvement of current approaches to high-resolution spatio-temporal mapping of air temperature, are introduced as future research opportunities.
PAPER REVISED: 2016-03-31
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-04-01
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