International Scientific Journal


An experimental study of convective boiling heat transfer of water flowing in minichannels at low flow rate is carried out with pure de-ionised water and copper-water nanofluids. A low concentration of copper nanometer-sized particles was used to enhance the boiling heat transfer. The aim is to characterize the surface temperature as well as to estimate the local heat transfer coefficients by using the inverse heat conduction problem IHCP. The inlet water temperature is fixed at 60°C and mass fluxes operated in range of 212-573 kg/m².s in minichannels of dimensions 500×2000 μm². The maximum heat flux investigated in the tests is limited to 7000 W/m². The results show that the surface temperature and the local heat transfer coefficient are dependent on the axial location and the adding of copper nanoparticles can significantly improve the heat transfer.
PAPER REVISED: 2015-01-19
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2015-02-08
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Thome, J.R., Boiling in microchannels: a review of experiment and theory, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 25 (2004), 2, pp. 128-139.
  2. Garrity, P.T., et al., A flow boiling microchannel evaporator plate for fuel cell thermal management, Heat Transfer Engineering 28 (2007), 10, pp. 877-884.
  3. Lee , J., Mudawar, I., Two-phase flow in high-heat flux micro-channel heat sink for refrigeration cooling applications: Part II- heat transfer characteristics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 48 (2005), 5, pp. 941-955.
  4. Boye , H., et al., Experimental investigation and modeling of heat transfer during convective boiling in a minichannel, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2007), 1-2, pp. 208- 215.
  5. Manglik, R.M., On the advancements in boiling two-phase flow heat transfer, and interfacial phenomena, Journal of Heat Transfer 128 (2006), 12, pp. 1237-1242.
  6. Bowers, M.B., Mudawar, I., High-flux boiling in low-flow rate, low-pressure drop mini-channel and microchannel heat sinks, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (1994), 2, pp. 321-332.
  7. Balakarishnan, R., et al., Flow boiling het transfer coefficient of R-134/R-290/R-600a mixture in smooth horizontal tube, Thermal Science 12 (2008), 3, pp. 33-44.
  8. Lallemand, M., Report integrated research project 8.2, Energy Program, France 2004.
  9. Dupont, V., Thome, J. R., Evaporation in microchannels: influence of the channel diameter on heat transfer, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics 1(2005), 2, pp. 119-127.
  10. Cheng, P., et al., Phase-change heat transfer in microsystems, Journal of Heat Transfer, 129 (2007), 2, pp. 101-107.
  11. Cubaud, T., et al., Two-phase flow in microchannels with surface modifications, Fluid Dynamics Research 38 (2006), 11, pp. 772-786.
  12. Harirchian, T., Garimella, S. V., Effects of channel dimension, heat flux, and mass flux on flow boiling regimes in microchannels, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 35 (2009), 4, pp. 349-362.
  13. Owhaib, W. , et al., A visualization study of bubble behavior in saturated flow boiling through a vertical mini-tube, Heat Transfer Engineering 28 (2007), 10, pp. 852-860.
  14. Kandlikar, S. G., et al., High-speed photographic observation of flow boiling of water in parallel mini-channels, Proceedings of NHTC, 35th National Heat Transfer Conference, , Anaheim, California, 2001.
  15. Kandlikar, S.G., et al., Experimental evaluation of pressure drop elements and fabricated nucleation sites for stabilizing flow boiling in minichannels and microchannels, Proceedings, 3rd international conference on microchannels and minichannels, Canada, 2005.
  16. Weilin, Q., Mudawar, I., Measurement and prediction of pressure drop in two phase micro channel heat sinks, Internationl Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 46 (2003), 15, pp. 2737- 2753.
  17. Bergles, A.E, Kandlikar, S.G., On the nature of critical heat flux in microchannels, Journal of Heat Transfer 127 (2005), 1, pp. 101-107.
  18. Lazarek, G.M., Black, S.H., Evaporative heat transfer, pressure drop and critical heat flux in small vertical tube with R-113, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 25 (1982), 7, pp. 945- 960.
  19. Revellin, R., et al., Status of prediction methods for critical heat fluxes in mini and microchannels, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 30 (2009), 5, pp. 983-992.
  20. Hall, D. D., Mudawar, I., Critical heat flux (CHF) for water flow in tubes-I. Compilation and assessment of world CHF data, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (2000),24, pp. 2573-2604.
  21. Roy, G., et al., Heat transfer and fluid flow in laminar radial flow cooling systems, journal of thermal science 14 (2005), 4, pp. 362-367.
  22. Maïga, S. E., et al., Heat transfer enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 26 (2005), 4, pp. 530-546.
  23. Shanthi, R., et al., Heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids an overview, Thermal Science 16 (2012), 2, pp. 423-444.
  24. Zhou, D.W., Heat transfer enhancement of cooper nanofluid with acoustic cavitation, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 47, (2004), 14-16, pp. 3109-3117.
  25. Boudouh, M., et al., Local convective boiling heat transfer and pressure drop of nanofluid in narrow rectangular channels, Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010), 17-18, pp. 2619-2631.
  26. Louahlia-Gualous, H., et al., The inverse estimation of the local heat transfer coefficient in falling film evaporation, Inverse Problem in science and Engineering Journal 12 (2004), 1, pp. 29-43.

© 2017 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence