## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### NUMERICAL STUDY OF MELTING IN AN ANNULUR ENCLOSURE FILLED WITH NANO-ENHANCED PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL

**ABSTRACT**

Heat transfer enhancement during melting in a two-dimensional cylindrical annulus through dispersion of nanoparticle is investigated numerically. Paraffin-based nanofluid containing various volume fractions of Cu is applied. The governing equations are solved on a non-uniform O type mesh using a pressure-based finite volume method with an enthalpy porosity technique to trace the solid and liquid interface. The effects of nanoparticle dispersion into pure fluid as well as the influences of some significant parameters, namely, nanoparticle volume fraction and natural convection on the fluid flow and heat transfer features are studied. The results are presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms, temperatures and velocity profiles and dimensionless heat flux. It is found that the suspended nanoparticles give rise to the higher thermal conductivity as compared to the pure fluid and consequently the heat transfer is enhanced. In addition, the heat transfer rate and the melting time increases and decreases, respectively, as the volume fraction of nanoparticle increases.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2012-07-20

PAPER REVISED: 2013-01-21

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2013-01-21

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2013-04-13

**THERMAL SCIENCE** YEAR

**2015**, VOLUME

**19**, ISSUE

**3**, PAGES [1067 - 1076]

- Gong, Z. X., Mujumdar, A. S., Enhancement of energy charge-discharge rates in composite slabs of different phase change materials, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 39 (1995), 4, pp. 725-733
- Domanski, R., EL-Sebaii, A. A., Jaworski, M., Cooking during off-sunshine hours using PCMs as strong media, Energy, 20 (1995), 7, pp. 607-616
- Zalba, B., Marín, J. M., Cabeza, L. F., Mehling, H., Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Applied Thermal Engineering, 23 (2003), 3, pp. 251-283
- Wang, X. Q., Mujumdar, A. S., Yap, C., Effect of orientation for phase change material (PCM)-based heat sinks for transient thermal management of electric component, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 34 (2007), 7, pp. 801-808
- Kenisarin, M., Mahkamov, K., Solar energy storage using phase change materials, Renewable &Sustainable Energy Reviews, 11 (2007), 9, pp. 1913-1965
- Sharma, A., Tyagi, V. V., Chen, C. R., Buddhi, D., Review on thermal energy storage with phase change materials and applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (2009), 12, pp. 318-45.
- Tan, F. L., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Khodadadi, J. M., Fan, L., Experimental and computational study of constrained melting of phase change materials (PCM) inside a spherical capsule, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52 (2009), 15-16, pp. 3464-3472
- Ismail, K. A. R., Moraes, R. I. R., A numerical and experimental investigation of different containers and PCM options for cold storage modular units for domestic applications, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 52 (2009), 19-20, pp. 4195-4202
- Cabeza, L. F., Casteii, A., Barreneche, C., de Gracia, A., Fernández, A. I., Materials used as PCM in thermal energy storage in buildings: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 (2011), 3, pp. 1675-1695
- Tay, N. H. S., Bruno, F., Belusko, M., Experimental validation of a CFD model for tubes in a phase change thermal energy storage system, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012), 4, pp 574-585
- Ng, K. W., Gong, Z. X., Mujumdar, A. S., Heat transfer in free convection-dominated melting of a phase change material in a horizontal annulus, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 25 (1998), 5, pp 631-640
- Khillarkar, D. B., Gong, Z. X., Mujumdar, A. S., Melting of a phase change material in concentric horizontal annuli of arbitrary cross-section, Applied Thermal Engineering, 20 (2000), 10, pp. 893-912
- Darzi, A. R., Farhadi, M., Sedighi, K., Numerical study of melting inside concentric and eccentric horizontal annulus, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 36 (2012), 9, pp. 4080-4086.
- Choi, U. S., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, in: Developments and Application of Non-Newtonian Flows, FED 231/MD 66, ASME, New York, 66 (1995) pp. 99-105.
- Abu-Nada, E., Masoud, Z., Hijazi, A., Natural convection heat transfer enhancement in horizontal concentric annuli using nanofluids, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 35 (2008), 5, pp. 657-665
- Abu-Nada, E., Effects of variable viscosity and thermal conductivity of Al2O3-water nanofluid on heat transfer enhancement in natural convection, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 30 (2009), 4, pp. 679-690
- Bauer, T., Tamme, R., Christ, M., Öttinger, O., PCM-graphite composites for high temperature thermal energy storage. Proc. of ECOSTOCK, 10th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, Stockton, USA, 2006
- Fang, X., Zhang, Z., Chen, Z., Study on preparation of montmorillonite-based composite Phase change materials and their applications in thermal storage building materials, Energy Conversion and Management, 49 (2008), 4, pp. 718-723
- Sari, A., Karaipekli, A., Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliability of palmitic acid/expanded graphite composite as form-stable PCM for thermal energy storage, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 93 (2009), 5, pp. 571-576
- Shatikian, V., Ziskind, G., Letan, R., Numerical investigation of a PCM-based heat sink with internal fins, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 48 (2005), 17, pp. 3689-3706
- Khodadadi, J. M., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Nanoparticle-enhanced phase change materials (NEPCM) with great potential for improved thermal energy storage, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 34 (2007), 5, pp. 534-543
- Sebti, S. S., Khalilarya, SH., Mirzaee, I., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Kashani, S., Abdollahzadeh, M., A Numerical Investigation of Solidification in Horizontal Concentric Annuli Filled with Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material (NEPCM), World Applied Sciences Journal, 13 (2011), 1, pp. 09-15
- Ranjbar, A. A., Kashani, S., Hosseinizadeh, S. F., Ghanbarpour, M., Numerical Heat Transfer Studies of a Latent Heat Storage System Containing Nano-Enhanced Phase Change Material, Thermal Science, 15 (2011), 1, pp. 169-181
- Kashani, S., Ranjbar, A. A., Abdollahzadeh, M., Sebti, S.S., Solidification of nano-enhanced phase change material (NEPCM) in a wavy cavity, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 48 (2012), 7, pp. 1155-1166
- Brinkman, H. C., the viscosity of concentrated suspensions and solution, Journal of computational Physics, 20 (1952), pp. 571-581
- Maxwell, J., A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Oxford University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1904.
- Voller, V. R., Prakash, C., A fixed-grid numerical modeling methodology for convection-diffusion mushy region phase-change problems, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 30 (1987), 8, pp. 1709-1719
- Dutta, R., Atta, A., Dutta, T. K., Experimental and Numerical Study of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Concentric Annulus Containing Phase Change Material, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 86 (2008), pp. 700-710
- Gau, C., Viskanta, R., Melting and solidification of a pure metal on a vertical wall, Journal of Heat Transfer, 108 (1986), 1, pp. 174-181.
- Brent, A. D., Voller, V. R., Reid, K. J., Enthalpy-porosity technique for modeling convection- diffusion phase change: application to the melting of a pure metal, Numerical Heat Transfer, 13 (1988), 3, pp. 297-318.