**ABSTRACT**

In this study, steady-state turbulent forced flow and heat transfer in a horizontal smooth semi-circular cross-sectioned duct was numerically investigated. The study was carried out in the turbulent flow condition where Reynolds numbers range from 1×104 to 5.5×104. Flow is hydrodynamically and thermally developing (simultaneously developing flow) under uniform surface heat flux with uniform peripheral wall heat flux (H2) boundary condition on the duct’s wall. A commercial CFD program, Ansys Fluent 12.1, with different turbulent models was used to carry out the numerical study. Different suitable turbulence models for fully turbulent flow (k-ε Standard, k-ε Realizable, k-ε RNG, k-ω Standard and k-ω SST) were used in this study. The results have shown that as the Reynolds number increases Nusselt number increases but Darcy friction factor decreases. Based on the present numerical solutions, new engineering correlations were presented for the average Nusselt number and average Darcy friction factor. The numerical results for different turbulence models were compared with each other and similar experimental investigations carried out in the literature. It is obtained that, k-ε Standard, k-ε Realizable and k-ε RNG turbulence models are the most suitable turbulence models for this investigation. Isovel contours of velocity magnitude and temperature distribution for different Reynolds numbers, turbulence models and axial stations in the duct were presented graphically. Also, local heat transfer coefficient and local Darcy friction factor as function of dimensionless position along the duct were obtained in this investigation.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2011-07-24

PAPER REVISED: 2012-11-09

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2013-06-03

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2013-06-16

**THERMAL SCIENCE** YEAR

**2014**, VOLUME

**18**, ISSUE

**4**, PAGES [1145 - 1158]

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