International Scientific Journal


Increasing thermal efficiency in diesel engines through low heat rejection concept is a feasible technique. In LHR engines the high heat evolution is achieved by insulating the combustion chamber surfaces and coolant side of the cylinder with partially stabilized zirconia of 0.5 mm thickness and the effective utilization of this heat depend on the engine design and operating conditions. To make the LHR engines more suitable for automobile and stationary applications, the extended expansion was introduced by modifying the inlet cam for late closing of intake valve through Miller’s cycle for extended expansion. Through the extended expansion concept the actual work done increases, exhaust blow-down loss reduced and the thermal efficiency of the LHR engine is improved. In LHR engines, the formation of nitric oxide is more, to reduce the nitric oxide emission, the internal EGR is incorporated using modified exhaust cam with secondary lobe. Modifications of gas exchange with internal EGR resulted in decrease in nitric oxide emissions. In this work, the parametric studies were carried out both theoretically and experimentally. The combustion, performance and emission parameters were studied and were found to be satisfactory.
PAPER REVISED: 2014-01-06
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2014-01-07
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. N. Baluswamy, Spatial and Temporal distribution of gaseous pollutants in a diesel engine combustion chamber, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Manchester Inst. of Sc. Tech., Manchester, UK, 1976.
  2. Ekrem Buyukkaya, Tahsin Engin, Muhammet Cerit, "Effects of thermal barrier coating on gas emissions and performance of a LHR engine with different injection timings and valve adjustments", Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006) 1298-1310.
  3. Adnan Parlak, Halit Yasar, Can Hasimoglu, Ahmet Kolip, "The effects of injection timing on NOx emissions of a low heat rejection indirect diesel injection engine", Applied Thermal Engineering 25 (2005) 3042-3052.
  4. Ch. Kesava Reddy ; M. V. S. Murali Krishna ; P. V. K. Murthy ; T. Ratna, Performance Evaluation of a Low-Grade Low-Heat-Rejection Diesel Engine with Crude Pongamia oil, ISRN Renewable Energy, Volume 2, 2012, doi:10.5402/2012/489605.
  5. B. Rajendra Prasath, P. Tamil Porai, Mohd. F. Shabir, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Two-zone modeling of diesel / biodiesel blended fuel operated ceramic coated direct injection diesel engine, Volume: 1 Issue: 6, 2010 pp. 1039-1056.
  6. P. K. Mathews ; B. Deepanraj, Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engine with Ethanol as Fuel, American Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume 8 , issue 4, 2011, pp 348-354.
  7. P. N. Shrirao ; A. N. Pawar, Evaluation of Performance and Emission characteristics of Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Mullite as Thermal Barrier Coating, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume :3 Issue:3, 2011, pp 256-262..
  8. P. Tamil Porai,, N. Baluswamy, P. Mannar Jawahar, S. Subramaniyam, S. Chandrasekaran, K. Vijayan, S. Jaichandar, J. Janci Rani, and K. Arunachalam, Simulation and Analysis of Combustion and Heat Transfer in Low-Heat-Rejection Diesel Engine Using Two-Zone Combustion Model and Different Heat Transfer Models, SAE paper, no. 2003-01-1067, 2003.
  9. Adnan Parlak, Halit Yasar, Osman Eldogan , The effect of thermal barrier coating on a turbo-charged Diesel engine performance and exergy potential of the exhaust gas, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol 46, 2005, pp 489-499.
  10. E.G.Giakoumis, Cylinder wall insulation effects on the first and second-law balances of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions, Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 48, 2007, pp. 2925-2933.
  11. Kentfield J.A.C. (1989), Diesel Engines with Extended Expansion Strokes, SAE paper, no. 891866.
  12. Roy Kamo, Nagesh S. Mavinahally and Lloyd kamo, "Emissions Comparisons of an Insulated Turbocharged Multi-Cylinder Miller Cycle Diesel Engine", SAE paper 980888, 1998.
  13. Nagesh Mavinahally and Roy Kamo, "Insulated Miller Cycle Diesel Engine", SAE paper 961050, 1996.
  14. Samad Jafarmadar and Mastaneh Hosseinzadeh, Iimprovement of emissions and performance by using of air jet, exhaust gas re-circulation and insulation methods in a direct injection diesel engine, Thermal science, 2013, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 57-70.
  15. Hassan khatamnezhad ,Sshahram khalil aryaa,Ssamad jafarmadara, and Arash nemati, Incorporation of exhaust gas recirculation and split injection for reduction of NOx and soot emissions in direct injection diesel engines, Thermal science, 2011, Vol. 15, Suppl. 2, pp. S409-S427.
  16. Benajes J., Serrano J.R., Molina S., Novella R, Potential of Atkinson cycle combined with EGR for pollutant control in a HD diesel engine Energy Conversion and Management 50, 2009, 174-183.
  17. Syed Yousufuddin, K.Venkateswarlu, Naseeb Khan, A computational study to investigate the effects of insulation and EGR in a diesel engine, International Journal of Energy and Environment, Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012 pp.247-266.
  18. Abd-Alla G.H, Using exhaust gas recirculation in internal combustion engines: a review, Energy Conversion and Management Vol. 43, 2002 pp.1027-1042.
  19. S.P. Edwards, G.R. Frankle, F. Wirbeleit and A. Raab, The Potential of a Combined Miller Cycle and Internal EGR Engine for Future Heavy Duty Truck Applications, SAE paper, no. 980180, 1998.
  20. Hakan Yilmaz and Anna Stefanopoulou, Control of Charge Dilution in Turbocharged Diesel Engines via Exhaust Valve Timing, ASME, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 127, 2005, pp. 363-373.
  21. N.D. Whitehouse and R. Way, Rate of heat release in diesel engines and its correlation with fuel injection data, Proc. I. Mech. E. London, Vol. 184, 1969, pp. 17-27.
  22. Brunt M.F.J., Kieron C.Platts , Calculation of Heat Release in Direct Injection Diesel Engines, SAE paper, no.1999-01-0187.
  23. W.J.D. Annand, Heat Transfer in the Cylinders of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines, Proc. I. Mech. E. London, Vol. 177, No. 36, 1963, pp. 973-996.
  24. Rajendra Prasath, B., Tamilporai, P. and Mohd. F. Shabir, Analysis of Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of Low Heat Rejection Engine Using Biodiesel, International Journal of Thermal Science, Vol. 49, pp. 2483-2490, 2010.
  25. C.A. Amann, Promises and challenges of the Low heat rejection diesel, ASME, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, Vol. 110, 1988, pp. 475-481.
  26. Y. Miyairi,, Computer Simulation of an LHR DI Diesel Engine, SAE paper, no. 880187, 1988.
  27. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1988.
  28. R.S. Benson and N.D. Whitehouse, Internal Combustion Engines, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1979.
  29. J.P. Holman, Experimental Methods for Engineers, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 2001.

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence