International Scientific Journal


The temperature of rubber or rubber-metal springs increases under cyclic loading, due to hysteresis losses and low rubber thermal conductivity. Hysteresis losses correspond to energy dissipation from the rubber, which is primarily converted into heat. This well-known phenomenon, called heat build-up, is the primary reason for rubber aging. Increase in temperature within the rubber compound leads to degradation of its physical and chemical properties, increase in stiffness and loss of damping capability. This paper presents a novel procedure of heat generation prediction in rubber or rubber-metal springs. The procedure encompasses the prediction of hysteresis loss, i. e. dissipated energy within the rubber, by finite element analysis and application of a modern visco-plastic rubber constitutive model. The obtained dissipated energy was used as an input for transient thermal analysis. Verification of the proposed procedure was performed by comparison of simulation results with experimentally obtained data during the dynamic loading of the rubber specimen. The proposed procedure is highly computationally efficient and it enables time integration, which can be problematic in coupled mechanical thermal analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35005: Research and Development of New Generation of Wind Turbines of High Energy Efficiency]
PAPER REVISED: 2012-07-07
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-07-12
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2012, VOLUME 16, ISSUE Supplement 2, PAGES [S527 - S539]
  1. Miltenoviæ, V., Machine elements - design, calculation, application (in Serbian), Mechanical Engineering Faculty, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia, 2009
  2. Woo, C. S., Park, H. S., Useful lifetime prediction of rubber component, Engineering Failure Analysis, 18 (2011), 7, pp. 1645-1651
  3. Pešek, L. et al., FEM modeling of thermo-mechanical interaction in pre-pressed rubber block, Engineering Mechanics, 14 (2007), 1/2, pp. 3-11
  4. Johnson, A. R., Chen, T-Z., Approximating thermo-viscoelastic heating of largely strained solid rubber components, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 194 (2005), 2-5, pp. 313-325
  5. Park, D. M. et al., Heat generation of filled rubber vulcanizates and its relationship with vulcanizate network structures, European Polymer Journal, 36 (2000), 11, pp. 2429-2436
  6. Luo, R. K. et al., A method to predict the heat generation in a rubber spring used in the railway industry, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, 219 (2005), 4, pp. 239-244
  7. Lin, Y-J., Hwang, S-J., Temperature prediction of rolling tires by computer simulation, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 67 (2004), 3, pp. 235-249
  8. Bergström, J. S., Constitutive Modeling of Elastomers - Accuracy of Predictions and Numerical Efficiency,
  9. Stamenkoviæ, D. et al., Development and validation of electro locomotives primary suspension rubbermetal elements, Proceedings, XIV Scientific-expert conference on railways - RAILCON '10, Niš, Serbia, 2010
  10. Bergström, J. S., Boyce, M. C., Constitutive modeling of the large strain time-dependent behavior of elastomers, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 46 (1998), 5, pp. 931-954
  11. Arruda, E. M., Boyce, M. C., A Three-Dimensional Constitutive Model for the Large Stretch Behavior of Rubber Elastic Materials, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 41 (1993), 2, pp. 389-412
  12. Bergström, J. S., PolyUMod - A library of advanced user materials, Veryst Engineering, LLC, Needham, MA, USA, 2012
  13. Bergström, J. S., Large Strain Time-Dependent Behavior of Elastomeric Materials, Ph. D. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Massachusetts, USA, 1999
  14. Raþiu, S., et al., Numerical simulation of thermal transfer in flame heated ovens, Proceedings, Proceedings, 11th International Symposium of Interdisciplinary Regional Research, Hungary-Romania- Serbia, Szeged, Hungary, 2010
  15. Luukkonen, A., et al., Heat generation in dynamic loading of hybrid rubber-steel composite structure, Proceedings, 17th Intern. Committee on Composite Materials conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, 2009
  16. Stamenkoviæ, D., Miloševiæ, M., Friction at rubber-metal springs, Proceedings, 11th International Conference on Tribology - SERBIATRIB '09, Belgrade, Serbia, 2009, pp. 215-219
  17. Korunoviæ, N, et al., Finite Element Analysis of a Tire Steady Rolling on the Drum and Comparison with Experiment, Strojniški vestnik - Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 57 (2011), 12, pp. 888-897
  18. ***, ANSYS Release 13.0 documentation
  19. Moran, M. J., Shapiro, H. N., Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, England, 2006
  20. Le Saux, V., et al., Fast evaluation of the fatigue lifetime of rubber-like materials based on a heat buildup protocol and micro-tomography measurements, International Journal of Fatigue, 32 (2010), 10, pp. 1582-1590

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence