International Scientific Journal


This paper is a review of the state of the art of biomass gasification and the future of using biomass in Serbia and it presents researches within the project “The Development of a CHP Plant with Biomass Gasification”. The concept of downdraft demonstration unit coupled with gas engine is adopted. Downdraft fixed-bed gasification is generally favored for CHP, owing to the simple and reliable gasifiers and low content of tar and dust in produced gas. The composition and quantity of gas and the amount of air are defined by modeling biomass residues gasification process. The gas (290-400m3/h for 0.5- 0.7MW biomass input) obtained by gasification at 800oC with air at atmospheric pressure contains 14% H2, 27% CO, 9% CO2, 2% CH4, and 48% N2, and its net heating value is 4.8-6 MJ/Nm3. The expected gasifier efficiency is up to 80%. The review of the work on biomass gasification has shown that the development of technology has reached the mature stage. There are CHP plants with biomass gasification operating as demonstration plants and several gasification demonstration units are successfully oriented to biofuel production. No attempt has been made here to address the economic feasibility of the system. Economics will be the part of a later work as firmer data are acquired.
PAPER REVISED: 2012-03-29
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-04-02
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2012, VOLUME 16, ISSUE Supplement 1, PAGES [S115 - S130]
  1. Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap 20% by 2020, European Renewable Energy Council
  2. Jankes, G., Milovanović, N., Biomass Gasification in Small-Scale Units for the Use in Agriculture and Forestry in Serbia, Thermal Science, 5 (2001), 2, pp. 49-57
  3. Golusin M., Tesic Z., Ostojic A., The Analysis of Renewable Energy Production in Serbia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (2010), pp. 1477-1483
  4. Karakosta, C., Doukas, H., Flouri, M., Dimopoulou, S., Papadopoulou, A.G., Psarras, J., Review and Analysis of Renewable Energy Perspectives in Serbia, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 2 (2011), pp. 71-84
  5. Energy Balances of the Republic of Serbia for 2011, Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and Ministry of Mining and Energy, Belgrade, 2010
  6. Ministry of Energy and Mining, Renewable Energy Sources in Serbia,
  7. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. National Accounts of Serbia, Gross Domestic Product of the Republic of Serbia (1997-2007). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, 2009
  8. Information available at
  9. Ilic, M., Grubor, B., Tešić, M., The State of Biomass Energy in Serbia, Thermal Science, 8 (2004), pp. 5-19
  10. Bogunovic A., Bogdanov N., Analysis of RES and its impact on Rural Development in Serbia, WP2: Studies, 2009
  11. Feasibility Study on Wood Waste Utilization in Serbia, Energy Savings Group, available at
  12. Zyc, D., The Viability of Corncobs as Bioenergy Feedstock, The literature review undertaken as part of summer internship in renewable energy at the West Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota, 2008
  13. Bridgwater, A.V., The Technical and Economic Feasibility of Biomass Gasification for Power Generation, Fuel, 74 (1995), pp. 631-653
  14. Balat, M., Balat, M., Kırtay, E., Balat, H., Main Routes for the Thermo-Conversion of Biomass into Fuels and Chemicals. Part 2: Gasification Systems, Energy Conversion and Management, 50 (2009), pp. 3158-3168
  15. Balat, M., New Biofuel Production Technologies, Energy Education Science & Technology, 22 (2009), pp. 147- 161
  16. Devi, L., Ptasinski, K.J., Janssen, F.J.J.G., A Review of Primary Measures for Tar Elimination in Biomass Gasification Processes, Biomass and Bioenergy, 24 (2003), pp. 125 - 140
  17. Bui, T., Loof, R., Bhattacharya, S.C. Multi-Stage Reactor for Thermal Gasification of Wood, Energy 19 (1994), pp. 397-404
  18. Rajvanshi, A. K., Biomass Gasification, in: Alternative Energy in Agriculture, Vol. II, (Ed. D. Yogi Goswami), CRC Press, 1986, pp. 83-102
  19. Pathak, B.S., Kapatel, D.V., Bhoi, P.R., Sharma, A.M., Vyas, D.K., Design and Development of Sand Bed Filter for Upgrading Producer Gas to IC Engine Quality Fuel, International Energy Journal, 8 (2007), pp. 15-20
  20. Knight, R.A., Experience with Raw Gas Analysis from Pressurized Gasification of Biomass, Biomass and Bioenergy, 18 (2000), pp. 67-77
  21. Rabou, T. L. P. L. M., Zwart, R.W. R., Vreugdenhil, B. J., Bosar, L.,Tar in Biomass Producer Gas, the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) Experience: An Enduring Challenge, Energy Fuels, 23 (2009), pp. 6189- 6198
  22. Lettner, F., Timmerer, H., Haselbacher, P., Biomass Gasification - State of the Art Description, in: Guideline for Safe and Eco-Friendly Biomass Gasification, Intelligent Energy - Europe (IEE), 2006, Ch. 8
  23. Schaub, K., Gemperle, H., Pyroforce Power from Wood System Commercial Breakthrough Reached, ThermalNET Newsletter, 6 (2008), pp 12-14
  24. Ruggiero, M, Manfrida, G. An Equilibrium Model for Biomass Gasification Process, Renewable Energy,16 (1999), pp. 1106-1109
  25. Tang, H, Kitagawa, K. Supercritical Water Gasification of Biomass: Thermodynamic Analysis with Direct Gibbs Free Energy Minimization, Chemical Engineering Journal, 106 (2005), pp. 261-267
  26. Altafini, C.R., Wander, P.R., Barreto, R.M. Prediction of the Working Parameters of Wood Waste Gasifier through an Equilibrium Model, Energy Conversion and Management, 43 (2003), pp. 2763-77
  27. Ramanan, M.V.; Lakshmanan, E.; Sethumadhavan, R.; Renganarayanan, S., Performance Prediction and Validation of Equilibrium Modeling for Gasification of Cashew Nut Shell Char, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25 (2008), pp. 585-601
  28. Zainal, Z.A., Ali, R., Lean, C.H., Seetharamu, K.N., Prediction of Performance of a Downdraft Gasifier Using Equilibrium Modeling for Different Biomass Materials, Energy Conversion and Management, 42 (2001), pp. 1499- 1515
  29. Sharma, A.K., Equilibrium and Kinetic Modeling of Char Reduction Reactions in a Downdraft Biomass Gasifier: A Comparison, Solar Energy, 52 (2008), pp. 918-928
  30. Khadse, A., Parulekar, P., Aghalayam, P., Ganesh, A., Equillibrium Model for Biomass Gasification, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India and Energy Systems Engineering, IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India
  31. Buekens, A. G. , Schoeters, J. G., Modeling of Biomass Gasification, in: Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion, (Eds. R. P. Overend, T. A. Milne, L. K. Mudge L. K.), Elsevier, pp. 619-689, 1985
  32. Ruggiero, M., Manfrida, G., An Equilibrium Model for Biomass Gasification Processes, Renewable Energy, 16 (1999), pp. 1106-1109
  33. Zainal, Z.A., Ali, R., Lean, C.H., Seetharamu, K.N., Prediction of Performance of a Downdraft Gasifier Using Equilibrium Modeling for Different Biomass Materials, Energy Conversion and Management, 42 (2001), pp. 1499- 1515
  34. Melgar, A., Pérez, J. F., Laget, H., Hornillo, A., Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Gasifying Process, Energy Conversion and Management, 48 (2007), pp. 59-67
  35. Jarungthammachote, S., Dutta, A., Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model and the Second Law Analysis of a Downdraft Waste Gasifier, Energy, 32 (2007), pp. 1660-1669
  36. Melgar, A., Pérez, J. F., Laget, H., Hornillo, A. Thermochemical Equilibrium Modeling of Gasifying Process, Energy Conversion and Management, 48 (2007), pp. 59-67
  37. Raveendran, K., Ganesh, A., Khilar, K., Influence of Mineral Matter on Biomass Pyrolysis Characteristic, Fuel, 74 (1995), pp. 1812-1822
  38. Raveendran, K., Ganesh, A., Khilar, K., Pyrolysis Characteristic of Biomass and Biomass Components, Fuel, 75 (1996), pp. 987-998
  39. Faaij, A., van Ree, R., Waldheim, L., Olsson, E., Oudhuis, A., van Wijk, A., Daey-Ouwens, C., Turkenburg, W., Gasification Of Biomass Wastes and Residues for Electricity Production, Biomass and Bioenergy, 12 (1997), pp. 387-407

© 2020 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence