## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### EFFECTS OF NANOPARTICLE VOLUME FRACTION IN HYDRODYNAMIC AND THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FORCED PLANE JET

**ABSTRACT**

The effects of nanoparticle volume fraction in hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of an incompressible forced 2-D plane jet flow are investigated. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a two dimensional incompressible plane forced jet flow for two nanofluids has been performed. The base fluid is water and the nanoparticles are Al O ,CuO 2 3 . The numerical simulation is carried out for the solid volume fraction between 0 to 4%. The results for both nanofluids indicate that any increase in the solid volume fraction decreases the amplitude of temperature, velocity time histories, the turbulent intensities and that of the Reynolds stresses. The results for both two nanoparticles also indicate that with any increase in nanoparticle volume fraction, the velocity amplitude of velocity time history, the turbulent intensities and Reynolds stress in 2 3 Al O -water are greater than that ofCuO-water nanofluid.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2010-10-11

PAPER REVISED: 2012-01-16

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-02-09

**THERMAL SCIENCE** YEAR

**2012**, VOLUME

**16**, ISSUE

**2**, PAGES [455 - 468]

- S.U.S. Choi S.U.S, Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles, Developments and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows 66 (1995), pp. 99-105.
- S.M.S. Murshed, K.C. Leong, C.Yang, Thermo physical and electro kinetic properties of nanofluids-A critical review, Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008), pp. 2109-2125.
- S.E.B. Maiga, C.T. Nguyen, N. Galanis, G. Roy, Heat transfer behaviors of nanofluids in a uniformly heated tube, Super lattices and Microstructures 35 (2004), pp. 453-462.
- S.E.B. Maiga, C.T. Nguyen, N. Galanis, G. Roy, Hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of a nanofluid in a uniformly heated tube, in: Computational Studies, vol.5, WIT Press, Southampton, SO40 7AA, United Kingdom, Lisbon, Portugal (2004), pp. 453-462.
- S.E.B. Maiga , N. Cong Tam, N. Galanis, G. Roy, T. Mare, M. Coqueux, Heat transfer enhancement in turbulent tube flow using 2 3 Al O nanoparticle suspension, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow 16 (2006), pp. 275-292.
- S. Mirmasoumi, A. Behzadmehr, Numerical study of laminar mixed convection of a nanofluid in a horizontal tube using two-phase mixture model, Applied Thermal Engineering 28 (2008), pp. 717-727
- M. Izadi, A. Behzadmehr, D. Jalali- Vahida, Numerical study of developing laminar forced convection in an annulus, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 48 (2009), pp. 2119-2129.
- W. Duangthongsuk, S. Wongwises, Heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop characteristics of 2 TiO -water nanofluid in a double-tube counter flow heat exchanger, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52 (2009), pp. 2059-2067.
- A. Behzadmehr, M. Saffar-Avval, N. Galanis, Prediction of turbulent forced convection of a nanofluid in tube with uniform heat flux using a two phase approach, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007), pp. 211-219.
- H. Chen, W. Yang, Y. He, Y. Ding, L. Zhang, C. Tan, A.A. Lapkin, D.V. Bavykin, Heat transfer and flow behavior of aqueous suspensions of titan ate nanotubes, Powder Technology 183 (2008), pp. 63-72
- Y. He, Y. Jin, H. Chen, Y. Ding, D. Cang, H. Lu, Heat transfer and flow behavior of aqueous suspensions of 2 TiO nanoparticles flowing upward through a vertical pipe, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 50 (2007), pp. 2272-2281.
- S. Zeinali Heris, S.Gh. Etemad, M. Nasr Esfahany, Experimental investigation of oxide nanofluids laminar flow convective heat transfer, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer 33 (2006), pp. 529-535.
- F. Talebi, A.H. Mahmoudi, M. Shahi, Numerical study of mixed convection flows in a
quare lid-driven cavity utilizing nanofluid, International Communication in Heat and Mass
ransfer 37 (2010), pp. 79-90
- M. Shahi , A.H. mahmoudi, F. Talebi, Numerical study of mixed convective cooling in a
quare cavity ventilated and partially heated from the below utilizing nanofluid, International
ommunications in Heat and Mass Transfer 37 (2010), pp. 201-213
- J. Lee, I. Mudawar, Assessment of the effectiveness of nanofluids for single-phase and
wo-phase heat transfer in micro-channels, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
0 (2007), pp. 452-463.
- A.K. Santra, S. Sen, M. Chakroborty, Study of heat transfer due to laminar flow of
opper-water nanofluid through two isothermally heated parallel plates, International Journal
f Thermal Sciences 48 (2009), pp. 391-400.
- C.T. Nguyen, N. Galanis, G. Polidori, S. Fohanno, C.V. Pota, A.L. Bechec, An
xperimental study of a confined and submerged impinging jet heat transfer using 2 3 Al O -
ater nanofluid, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 48 (2009), pp. 401-411.
- X.Y. Luo, A. Ying, M. Abdou, Numerical study of MHD effect on liquid metal free jet
omplex magnetic field, Fusion Eng 81 (2006), pp. 1451-1458.
- A. Konkachbaev, N.B. Morley, M. Abdou, Effect of initial turbulent intensity and
elocity profile on liquid jets for IFE beam line protection, Fusion Eng 64 (2002), pp. 619-
24.
- A. Konkachbaev, N.B. Morley, Stability and contraction of rectangular liquid metal jet in
acuum environment, Fusion Eng 52 (2000), pp. 1109-1114.
- W. Yu, S.U.S. Choi, The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity
f nanofluids: a renovated maxwell model, Journal of Nanoparticle Research 5 (2003), pp.
67-171.
- C.T. Nguyen,F. Desgranges,G. Roy, N. Galanis , T.Mare, S. Boucher, H. Angue Mintsa,
emprature and particle-size dependent viscosity data for water-based nanofluids-Hysteresis
henomenon, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 28 (2007), pp. 1492-1506.
- H. Schilichting, Boundary-layer Theory, 8th ed, Springer-Verlag, 2000.
- S. Satake, T. Kunugi, Direct numerical simulation of an impinging jet into parallel disks,
nt.J.Numer. Meth. Heat Fluid Flow 8 (1998), pp. 768-780
- L.R. Pauley, P. Moin, W.C. Reynolds, The structure of two-dimensional sepration,
.Fluid Mech 220 (1990), pp. 397-411.
- M.J Maghrebi, J.Soria, Outflow boundary condition issues in DNS of three dimensional
lane wake flow, Journal of Aerospace Science and Technology JAST 3 (2006), pp. 177-
83.
- M.J. Maghrebi, A. Zarghami, DNS of forced mixing layer, International Journal of
umerical Analysis and Modeling (ijnam), 7 (2010), pp. 173-193.
- S.K. Lele, Compact Finite Difference Scheme with Spectral-Like Resolution, Journal of
omputational Physics 103 (1992), pp. 16-43.
- A. Wray, M.Y. Hussaini, Numerical Experiments in Boundary Layer Stability, Proc. R.
oc. Lond. A 392 (1984), pp. 373-389.
- J.T. Stuart, on finite amplitude oscillation in laminar mixing layer, JFM 29 (1967), pp.
17-440.
- G.N., Abramovich, The Theory of Turbulent Jets, MIT Press, 1963.
- B.G., Van der Hegge Zijnen, Measurements of the Velocity Distribution in a Plane
urbulent Jet of Air. Applied Scientific Research 7(1958), pp. 256-276.
- K., Thorne, Application of classical physics - Chapter 14: Turbulence. Caltech
ecture Course Ph136 (2004). www.pma.caltech.edu/Courses/ph136/yr2004/.
- J., Morchain, C., Maranges, and C., Fonade, CFD modelling of a two-phase jet
erator under influence of a crossflow. Water Research 34(2000), pp. 3460-3472.
- T.N., Aziz, J.P., Raiford and A.A., Khan, 2008. Numerical simulation of turbulent
ets. Engineering Applications of Computational Fluid Mechanics 2(2008), pp. 234-243.
- Mina Shahi, Amir Houshang Mahmoudi, Farhad Talebi, Numerical modeling of steady
atural convection heat transfer in a 3-dimensional single ended tube subjected to a nanofluid,
nternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, International Communications in
eat and Mass Transfer 37 (10) (2010) 1535-1545.
- B. Pak ,Y. Cho, Hydrodynamic And Heat Transfer Study Of Dispersed Fluids With
ubmicron Metallic Oxide Particles, Experimental Heat Transfer 11 (1998), pp. 151-170.