International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


The objective of this study is to investigate Spray Breakup process of sprays injected from single and two-hole nozzles for gasoline direct Injection (GDI) engines by using three dimensional CFD code. Spray characteristics were examined for spray tip penetration and other characteristics including: the vapor phase concentration distribution and droplet spatial distribution, which were acquired using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Results showed that as the hole-axis-angle (γ) of the two-hole nozzle decreased, the droplet coalescence increased and vapor mass decreased. The spray with cone angle (θ0) 5 deg for single hole nozzle has the longest spray tip penetration and the spray with the γ of 30 deg and spray cone angle θ0=30 deg for two hole nozzles had the shortest one. Also, when the spray cone angle (θ0) and hole-axis-angle (γ) increased from 5 to 30 deg, the Sauter mean diameter (SMD) decreased for both single-hole and two-hole nozzles used in this study. For a single-hole nozzle, when spray cone angle increased from 5 to 30 deg, the vaporization rate very much because of low level of coalescence. The result of model for tip penetration is good agreement with the corresponding experimental data in the literatures.
PAPER REVISED: 2011-05-01
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2011-05-06
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. F.F. Zhao, D.L. Harrington, M.C. Lai, Automotive Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines, SAE, 2002.
  2. F.Q. Zhao,M.C. Lai, D.L. Harrington, A review of mixture preparation and combustion strategies for spark-ignited direct injection gasoline engine, SAE 970627.
  3. Y. Tagagi, The role of mixture formation in improving fuel economy and reducing emissions of automotive S.I. engines, FISITA Technical Paper No. P0109, 1996.
  4. Preussner C, Kampmann S. Gasoline direct injection, a new challenge for future gasoline control systems - part 2: injector and mixture formation. MTZ 1997;58.
  5. Iwamoto Y, Noma K, Yamaguchi T, Ando H. Development of gasoline direct injection engine. SAE Paper 970541; 1997.
  6. Koike M, Saito A, Terutoshi Tomoda, Yamamoto Y. Research and development of a new direct injection gasoline engine. SAE Paper 2000-01-0530; 2000.
  7. Han Z, Yi J, Trigui N. Stratified mixture formation and piston surface wetting in a DISI engine. SAE Paper 2002-01-2655; 2002.
  8. Stevens E, Steeper R. Piston wetting in an optical DISI engine: fuel films, pool fires, and soot generation. SAE Paper 2001-01-1203; 2001.
  9. Eichlseder H, Baumann E, Muller P, Neugebauer S. Potential and risks of gasoline direct injection engines for passenger cardrivelines. MTZ worldwide 2000;61:2-5.
  10. Katashiba H, Honda T, Kawamoto M, Sumida M, Fukutomi N, Kawajiri K. Improvement of center injection spray guided DISI performance. SAE Paper 2006-01-1001; 2006.
  11. Ortmann R, Arndt S, Raimann J, Grzeszik R, Würfel G. Methods and analysis of fuel injection, mixture preparation and charge stratification in different direct injected SI engines. SAE Paper 2001-01-0970; 2001.
  12. Alperstein M, Schafer GH, Villforth III FJ. Texaco's stratified charge engine -multifuel, efficient, clean, and practical. SAE Paper 740563; 1974.
  13. Fujieda M, Siraisi T, Oosuga M. Influence of the spray pattern on combustion characteristics of the direct injection SI engine. Proc. ILASS-Japan (in Japanese), 1995.
  14. Abraham J, Khan A, Magi V. Jet-jet and jet-wall interactions of transient jets from multi-hole injectors. SAE Paper 1999-01-0513; 1999.
  15. Arai M, Saito M. Atomization characteristics of jet-to-jet and spray-to-spray impingement systems. Atom Sprays 1999;9:399-417.
  16. Ashgriz N, Poo JY. Coalescence and separation in binary collisions of liquid drops. J Fluid Mech 1990;221:183-204.
  17. Qian J, Law K. Regimes of coalescence and separation in droplet collision. J Fluid Mech 1997;331:59-80.
  18. Nishida K, Nomura S, Matsumoto Y. Spray and mixture properties of grouphole nozzle for D.I. diesel engines. in: Proceeding of ICLASS, 2006.
  19. Gao J, Matsumoto Y, Namba M, Nishida K. Group-hole nozzle effects on mixture formation and in-cylinder combustion processes in direct-injection diesel engines. SAE Paper 2007-01-4050; 2007.
  20. Gao J, Matsumoto Y, Nishida K. Effects of group-hole nozzle specifications on fuel atomization and evaporation of direct injection diesel sprays. SAE Paper 2007-01-1889; 2007.
  21. Zhang YY, Nishida K, Nomura S. Spray characteristics of a group-hole nozzle for direct-injection diesel engines. Atom Sprays 2006;16:35-49.
  22. Park SW, Reitz RD. Modeling the effect of injector nozzle-hole layout on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions. J Eng Gas Turb Power-Trans ASME 2008;130:032805-1-10.
  23. Matsumoto A, Xie X, Lai MC, Deere J. Characterization of diesel common rail spray behavior for single- and double-hole nozzles. SAE Paper 2008-01-2424; 2008.
  24. Jafarmadar. S, Khalil arya. Sh, Shafee. S, Barzegar. R, "Modeling the effect of spray/wall impingement on combustion process and emission of DI diesel engine", Journal of Thermal Science: Vol. 13 (2009), No. 3, pp. 23-34.
  25. A. Uludogan, D. E. Foster, and R. D. Reitz "Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine" SAE paper 962056.
  26. Tomoyuko Wakisaka,Kunikazo Ibaraki "An improvement droplet breakup model for three dimensional diesel spray simulation ." rd 3 KSME, JSME, Thermal Engineering Conference 11-167-162, 1996.
  27. Carsten Baumgarten, "Mixture Formation in Internal Combustion Engines", Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.
  28. Dukowicz JK. Quasi-steady droplet change in the presence of convection, informal report Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Rep. LA7997-MS.
  29. O'Rourke PJ, Bracco FV. In: IMechE -stratified charge automotive engines conference, 1980.
  30. Mirza, M. R., "Studies of Diesel sprays interacting with cross flows and solid boundaries", PhD Thesis, UMIST UK 1991.

© 2019 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence