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FIRE SAFETY CASE STUDY OF A RAILWAY TUNNEL: SMOKE EVACUATION

ABSTRACT
When a fire occurs in a tunnel, it is of great importance to assure the safety of the occupants of the tunnel. This is achieved by creating smoke-free spaces in the tunnel through control of the smoke gases. In this paper, results are presented of a study concerning the fire safety in a real scale railway tunnel test case. Numerical simulations are performed in order to examine the possibility of natural ventilation of smoke in inclined tunnels. Several aspects are taken into account: the length of the simulated tunnel section, the slope of the tunnel and the possible effects of external wind at one portal of the tunnel. The Fire Dynamics Simulator of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, is applied to perform the simulations. The simulations show that for the local behavior of the smoke during the early stages of the fire, the slope of the tunnel is of little importance. Secondly, the results show that external wind and/or pressure conditions have a large effect on the smoke gases inside the tunnel. Finally, some idea for the value of the critical ventilation velocity is given. The study also shows that computational fluid dynamics calculations are a valuable tool for large scale, real life complex fire cases. .
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PAPER SUBMITTED: 2006-03-30
PAPER REVISED: 2006-04-30
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2006-09-01
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI0702207V
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2007, VOLUME 11, ISSUE Issue 2, PAGES [207 - 222]
REFERENCES
  1. http://fire.nist.gov/fds
  2. McGrattan, K., Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 4) - Technical Reference Guide, NIST Special Publication 1018, 2005
  3. Johnson, P., Faller, G., Hoffmann, N., Luo, M., Coles, A., Fire Safety for Passenger Rail Cars - A Global Perspective on Infrastructure Design, Proceedings, Conference on Fire Safety in Terrestrial Passenger Transportation, Santander, Spain, 2005, pp. 61-72
  4. EUREKA. Fires in Transport Tunnels: Report on Full-scale Tests. EUREKA-Project EU499: FIRETUN, Studiengesellschaft Stahlanwendung e.V., D-40213 Düsseldorf, Germany, 1995

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence