International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


Today, the World Health Organization has declared a global health emergency, caused by the Monkeypox outbreak. In the monthly analysis for June, 3500 cases have been reported in 50 countries around the world. In the analysis for July, more than 30000 cases have been reported in 75 countries. Thus, in the circumstances of the continuing COVID-19 pandemic, the appearance and dynamics of spreading of Monkeypox is alarming. In this paper, for the first time, elemental composition of Poxvirus, Monkeypox virus, and Vaccinia virus have been reported. Additionally, thermodynamic properties have been reported for nucleic acids, nucleocapsids, and entire virus particles. The similarity in chemical composition and thermodynamic properties of the analyzed viruses has been used to explain the crossed immunity to Poxviruses. Finally, binding thermodynamic properties have been reported for the Vaccinia virus.
PAPER REVISED: 2022-08-02
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-08-15
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [4855 - 4868]
  1. WHO (2022a). Monkeypox outbreak 2022 - Global
  2. CDC (2022). 2022 Monkeypox Outbreak Global Map
  3. WHO (2022b). Multi-country monkeypox outbreak: situation update 27 June 2022
  4. Riedel, S., Morse, S., Mietzner, T. & Miller, S. Jawetz, Melnick & Adelbergs Medical Microbiology, 28th ed., McGraw-Hill Education, New York, USA, 2019. ISBN: 978-1260012026
  5. Wimmer E. The test-tube synthesis of a chemical called poliovirus. The simple synthesis of a virus has far-reaching societal implications. EMBO reports, 7 (2006), Spec No, S3-S9.
  6. Degueldre C. Single virus inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis: A comprehensive study. Talanta, 228 (2021), 122211.
  7. Popovic, M. and Popovic, M., Strain Wars: Competitive interactions between SARS-CoV-2 strains are explained by Gibbs energy of antigen-receptor binding. Microbial Risk Analysis, 21 (2022), 100202.
  8. Popovic, M., Strain wars 2: Binding constants, enthalpies, entropies, Gibbs energies and rates of binding of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Virology, 570 (2022), 35-44.
  9. Popovic, M., Strain wars 3: Differences in infectivity and pathogenicity between Delta and Omicron strains of SARS-CoV-2 can be explained by thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of binding and growth. Microbial risk analysis, (2022), 100217. Advance online publication.
  10. Popovic, M., Atom counting method for determining elemental composition of viruses and its applications in biothermodynamics and environmental science. Computational biology and chemistry, 96 (2022), 107621.
  11. Gale, P., Using thermodynamic equilibrium models to predict the effect of antiviral agents on infectivity: Theoretical application to SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses. Microbial risk analysis, 21 (2021), 100198. Advance online publication.
  12. Gale, P., How virus size and attachment parameters affect the temperature sensitivity of virus binding to host cells: Predictions of a thermodynamic model for arboviruses and HIV. Microbial risk analysis, 15 (2020), 100104.
  13. Gale, P., Towards a thermodynamic mechanistic model for the effect of temperature on arthropod vector competence for transmission of arboviruses. Microbial risk analysis, 12 (2019), 27-43.
  14. Gale, P., Using thermodynamic parameters to calibrate a mechanistic dose-response for infection of a host by a virus. Microbial risk analysis, 8 (2018), 1-13.
  15. Popovic, M., & Minceva, M., A thermodynamic insight into viral infections: do viruses in a lytic cycle hijack cell metabolism due to their low Gibbs energy?. Heliyon, 6 (2020), 5, e03933.
  16. Popovic, M., & Minceva, M., Thermodynamic insight into viral infections 2: empirical formulas, molecular compositions and thermodynamic properties of SARS, MERS and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) viruses. Heliyon, 6 (2020), 9, e04943.
  17. Popovic, M., & Minceva, M., Coinfection and Interference Phenomena Are the Results of Multiple Thermodynamic Competitive Interactions. Microorganisms, 9 (2021), 10, 2060.
  18. Head, R. J., Lumbers, E. R., Jarrott, B., Tretter, F., Smith, G., Pringle, K. G., Islam, S., & Martin, J. H., Systems analysis shows that thermodynamic physiological and pharmacological fundamentals drive COVID-19 and response to treatment. Pharmacology research & perspectives, 10 (2022), 1, e00922.
  19. Von Stockar, U., Live cells as open non-equilibrium systems, in: Biothermodynamics: The Role of Thermodynamics in Biochemical Engineering (Ed. U. von Stockar), EPFL Press, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2013, pp. 475-534.
  20. Von Stockar, U., Biothermodynamics of Live Cells: Energy Dissipation and Heat Generation in Cellular Cultures, in: Biothermodynamics: The Role of Thermodynamics in Biochemical Engineering (Ed. U. von Stockar), EPFL Press, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2013, pp. 475-534.
  21. von Stockar, U., & Liu, J., Does microbial life always feed on negative entropy? Thermodynamic analysis of microbial growth. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1412 (1999), 3, 191-211.
  22. Hellingwerf, K.J., Lolkema, J.S., Otto, R., Neijssel, O.M., Stouthamer, A.H., Harder, W., van Dam, K. and Westerhoff, H.V., Energetics of microbial growth: an analysis of the relationship between growth and its mechanistic basis by mosaic non‐equilibrium thermodynamics. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 15 (1982), 1, 7-17.
  23. Westerhoff, H.V., Lolkema, J.S., Otto, R. and Hellingwerf, K.J., Thermodynamics of growth. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of bacterial growth: the phenomenological and the Mosaic approach. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Bioenergetics, 683 (1982), 3-4, 181-220.
  24. Popovic, M., Thermodynamic properties of microorganisms: determination and analysis of enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy of biomass, cells and colonies of 32 microorganism species. Heliyon, 5 (2019), 6, e01950.
  25. Popovic, M. and Minceva, M., Thermodynamic properties of human tissues. Thermal Science, 24 (2020), 6B, 4115-4133.
  26. Popović, M. E., & Minceva, M., Comment on:"A critical review on heat and mass transfer modelling of viral infection and virion evolution: the case of SARS-COV2. Thermal Science, 25 (2021), 6 Part B, 4823-4825.
  27. Trancossi, M., Pascoa, J. C., & Sharma, S., A critical review on heat and mass transfer modelling of viral infection and virion evolution: the case of SARS-COV2. Thermal Science, 25 (2021), 4A, 2831-2843.
  28. Lucia, U., Grisolia, G., & Deisboeck, T. S., Thermodynamics and SARS-CoV-2: neurological effects in post-Covid 19 syndrome. Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti, 99 (2021), 2, A3.
  29. Lucia, U., Grisolia, G., & Deisboeck, T. S., Seebeck-like effect in SARS-CoV-2 bio-thermodynamics. Atti della Accademia Peloritana dei Pericolanti-Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, 98 (2020), 2, 6.
  30. Lucia, U., Deisboeck, T. S., & Grisolia, G., Entropy-based pandemics forecasting. Frontiers in Physics, 8 (2020), 274.
  31. Şimşek, B., Özilgen, M., & Utku, F. Ş., How much energy is stored in SARS‐CoV‐2 and its structural elements?. Energy Storage, (2021), e298.
  32. Popovic, M., Differences in infectivity and pathogenicity between Delta and Omicron strains of SARS-CoV-2 can be explained by Gibbs energies of binding and growth, Proceedings, 21st Conference of the International Society for Biological Calorimetry (ISBC 2022), Vilnius, Lithuania, 2022, p. 20. ISBN: 978-609-96039-2-6
  33. National Center for Biotechnology Information (2022). NCBI database
  34. Knight, C.A., Chemistry of Viruses, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1975. ISBN: 978-3-642-85899-4
  35. Lai, C. F., Gong, S. C., & Esteban, M., The 32-kilodalton envelope protein of vaccinia virus synthesized in Escherichia coli binds with specificity to cell surfaces. Journal of virology, 65 (1991), 1, 499-504.
  36. Battley, E.H., The development of direct and indirect methods for the study of the thermodynamics of microbial growth. Thermochimica Acta, 309 (1998), 1-2, 17-37.
  37. Battley, E. H., On the enthalpy of formation of Escherichia coli K-12 cells. Biotechnology and bioengineering, 39 (1992), 1, 5-12.
  38. Patel, S.A. and Erickson, L.E. Estimation of heats of combustion of biomass from elemental analysis using available electron concepts. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 23 (1981), 2051-2067.
  39. Atkins, P.W., & de Paula, J., Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics, Structure, and Change, 10th Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2014.
  40. Atkins, P. W., & de Paula, J., Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences (2nd edition), W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA, 2011.
  41. Battley, E.H., An empirical method for estimating the entropy of formation and the absolute entropy of dried microbial biomass for use in studies on the thermodynamics of microbial growth. Thermochimica Acta, 326 (1999), 1-2, 7-15.
  42. Battley, E. H., A theoretical study of the thermodynamics of microbial growth using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a different free energy equation. The Quarterly review of biology, 88 (2013), 2, 69-96.
  43. Wang, L., Wang, X., Jin, X., Xu, J., Zhang, H., Yu, J., Sun, Q., Gao, C., & Wang, L. Analysis of algae growth mechanism and water bloom prediction under the effect of multi-affecting factor. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 24 (2017), 3, 556-562.
  44. Popovic, M., & Minceva, M., Standard Thermodynamic Properties, Biosynthesis Rates, and the Driving Force of Growth of Five Agricultural Plants. Frontiers in plant science, 12 (2021), 671868.
  45. Du, X., Li, Y., Xia, Y. L., Ai, S. M., Liang, J., Sang, P., Ji, X. L., & Liu, S. Q. Insights into Protein-Ligand Interactions: Mechanisms, Models, and Methods. International journal of molecular sciences, 17 (2016), 2, 144.
  46. Alakunle, E. F., & Okeke, M. I., Monkeypox virus: a neglected zoonotic pathogen spreads globally. Nature reviews Microbiology, 20 (2022), 507-508.
  47. Di Giulio, D. B., & Eckburg, P. B., Human monkeypox: an emerging zoonosis. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 4 (2004), 1, 15-25.
  48. Johnson, L.; Gupta, A. K.; Ghafoor, A.; Akin, D.; Bashir, R. Characterization of vaccinia virus particles using microscale silicon cantilever resonators and atomic force microscopy. Sensors and Actuators B Chemical, 115 (2006), 1, 189-197.
  49. Demirel, Y. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics: Transport and Rate Processes in Physical, Chemical and Biological Systems, 3rd ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2014. ISBN: 9780444595812
  50. Molla, A., Paul, A. V., & Wimmer, E., Cell-free, de novo synthesis of poliovirus. Science, 254 (1991), 5038, 1647-1651.
  51. European Medicines Agency (2013). Assessment report: IMVANEX, Common name: Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus, Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/002596.
  52. Hansen, L. D., Popovic, M., Tolley, H. D., & Woodfield, B. F., Laws of evolution parallel the laws of thermodynamics. The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 124 (2018), 141-148.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence