International Scientific Journal

External Links


In liquid rocket engines or internal combustion engines, increasing the inlet fuels temperature or chamber pressure exceeding its critical point is capable of improving the combustion efficiency. Under these conditions, the thermophysical and transport properties have an important effect on fluids mixing and combustion process. In this study, the fuel of n-heptane injected into a multi-species environment are simulated by large eddy simulations and the performance of the injected fuel temperature and different chamber conditions are compared in con-junction with high accuracy equation of state and transport properties. The results show that as the injected temperature or the chamber pressure increase, the penetration length and density gradient decrease, while the width of mixing layer increase. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that for the single injection condition, by increasing the fuel inlet temperature or chamber pressure, the essence is to reduce the initial density ratio, thereby reducing the density stratification between the jet and environment gas, which is beneficial to the jet mixing and combustion process.
PAPER REVISED: 2022-06-11
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-06-28
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [5239 - 5252]
  1. Gerber, V., et al., Fluid injection with supercritical reservoir conditions: Overview on morphology and mixing, The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 169 (2021), pp. 1-22
  2. Lagarza-Cortés, C., et al., Large-eddy simulation of transcritical and supercritical jets immersed in a quiescent environment, Physics of Fluids, 31 (2019), 2, pp. 1-14
  3. Yang, V., Modeling of supercritical vaporization, mixing, and combustion processes in liquid-fueled propulsion systems, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 28 (2000), 1, pp. 925-942
  4. Bellan, J., Supercritical (and subcritical) fluid behavior and modeling: drops, streams, shear and mixing layers, jets and sprays, Progress in Energy & Combustion Science, 26 (2000), 4, pp. 329-366
  5. Branam, R., Mayer, W., Characterization of Cryogenic Injection at Supercritical Pressure, Journal of Propulsion & Power, 19 (2003), 3, pp. 342-355
  6. Oschwald, M., Micci, M., Spreading Angle and Centerline Variation of Density of Supercritical Nitrogen Jets, Atomization & Sprays, 12 (2002), 1-3 pp. 91-106
  7. Candel, S., et al., Experimental Investigation of Shear Coaxial Cryogenic Jet Flames, Journal of Propulsion & Power, 14 (1998), 5, pp. 826-834
  8. Shin, B., et al., Effects of supercritical environment on hydrocarbon-fuel injection, Journal of Thermal Science, 26 (2017), 2, pp. 183-191
  9. Magalhães, L. B., et al., Computational study on coaxial nitrogen-hydrogen injection at supercritical conditions, AIAA SCITECH 2022 Forum, 2022, pp. 1-12.
  10. Hossain, K., et al., Transonic Combustion: Model Development and Validation in the Context of a Pressure Chamber, Sae Technical Papers, 2012
  11. Boer, C. D., et al., Transonic Combustion - A Novel Injection-Ignition System for Improved Gasoline Engine Efficiency, SAE 2010 Powertrains Fuels & Lubricants Meeting, 2010.
  12. Dahms, R. N., Oefelein, J. C., On the transition between two-phase and single-phase interface dynamics in multicomponent fluids at supercritical pressures, Physics of Fluids, 25 (2013), 9, pp. 092-103
  13. Dahms, R. N., et al., Understanding high-pressure gas-liquid interface phenomena in Diesel engines, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 34 (2013), 1, pp. 1667-1675
  14. ECN. Engine Combustion Network.
  15. Miller, R. S., et al., Direct numerical simulations of supercritical fluid mixing layers applied to heptane-nitrogen, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 436 (2001), 4, pp. 1-39
  16. Okong'O, N. A., Bellan, J., Direct numerical simulation of a transitional supercritical binary mixing layer: Heptane and nitrogen, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 464 (2002), 10, pp. 1-34
  17. Tani, H., et al., A Numerical Study on a Temporal Mixing Layer under Transcritical Conditions, Computers & Fluids, 85 (2013), 85, pp. 93-104
  18. Zong, N., Yang, V., An efficient preconditioning scheme for real-fluid mixtures using primitive pressure-temperature variables, International Journal of Computational Fluid Dynamics, 21 (2007), 5, pp. 217-230
  19. Yang, V., Cryogenic fluid jets and mixing layers in transcritical and supercritical environments, Combustion Science & Technology, 178 (2006), 1, pp. 193-227
  20. Zong, N., et al., A numerical study of cryogenic fluid injection and mixing under supercritical conditions, Physics of Fluids, 16 (2004), 12, pp. 4248-4261
  21. Park, T. S., LES and RANS simulations of cryogenic liquid nitrogen jets, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 72 (2012), 12, pp. 232-247
  22. Park, T. S., Kim, S. K., A Pressure-Based Algorithm for Gaseous Hydrogen/Liquid Oxygen Jet Flame at Supercritical Pressure, Numerical Heat Transfer Part A Applications, 67 (2015), 5, pp. 547-570
  23. Oefelein, J. C., et al., Detailed Modeling and Simulation of High-Pressure Fuel Injection Processes in Diesel Engines, Sae International Journal of Engines, 5 (2012), 3, pp. 1410-1419
  24. Gopal, J. M., et al., Understanding Sub and Supercritical Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics in Conditions Relevant to Novel Ultra Low Emission Engines, Energies, 13 (2020), 12, pp. 30-38
  25. Yang, Z., et al., Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations Describing Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer Behavior for Supercritical Fluid, Journal of Thermal Sciences, 30 (2021), 1, pp. 191-200
  26. Mohseni, M., Bazargan, M., Entropy generation in turbulent mixed convection heat transfer to highly variable property pipe flow of supercritical fluids, Energy Conversion and Management, 87(2014), 87,pp. 552-558
  27. Bai, W., Xu, X., Comparative analyses of two improved CO2 CCHP systems driven by solar energy, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), 2, pp. 693-700
  28. Sarkar, J., Improving thermal performance of microchannel electronic heat sink using supercritical CO2 as coolant, Thermal Science, 23 (2017), 1, pp. 243-253
  29. Smagorinsky, J., General circulation experiments with the primitive equations, Monthly Weather Review, 91 (1963), 3, pp. 99-164
  30. Lilly, D. K., A proposed modification of the Germano subgrid‐scale closure method, Physics of Fluids A Fluid Dynamics, 4 (1992), 4, pp. 633-635
  31. Prausnitz, J. M., et al., Molecular thermodynamics of fluid-phase equilibria, Prentice-Hall, 1969.
  32. Redlich, O., Kwong, J. N., On the thermodynamics of solutions; an equation of state; fugacities of gaseous solutions, Chemical Reviews, 44 (1949), 1, pp. 233-244
  33. Kim, T., Kim, Y., Kim, S. K., Numerical study of cryogenic liquid nitrogen jets at supercritical pressures, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 56 (2011), 2, pp. 152-163
  34. Chung, T. H, et al., Generalized multiparameter correlation for nonpolar and polar fluid transport properties, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 27 (1988), 27, pp. 671-679
  35. Reid, R. C., et al., The properties of gases and liquids. McGraw-Hill, 1977

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence