International Scientific Journal


This study aims to generate, independently from the electric network, one part of the electrical energy required in the existing electric vehicles, utilizing the wind en­ergy raised by on-the-go vehicles and thus enhancing the distance covered at one single charge. Regarding that aim, the effect of vehicle type wind turbine, which was designed so as not to cause an increase in the vehicle projection area, on the aerodynamic performance and energy efficiency of the vehicle was analyzed numer­ically. Using the shear stress transport k-ω turbulence model, CFD simulations were conducted to determine the drag coefficients, pressure contours and velocity vectors of the designed basic vehicle model (M0) and its two different modified versions (M1, M2). The ANSYS-FLUENT software was used for numerical simulations. In the data obtained from the simulation results, the drag coefficient, compared to the M0 model, was determined to undergo an increase by 8.49% and 4.05%, respectively for M1 and M2 models. The total energy loss of the M2 model increased by 2.47% compared to the M0 model. The net energy gain produced through the wind turbine in the M2 model constituted approximately 5.13% of the total lost energy of the M0 model vehicle. In this context, the energy gain yielded from the wind turbine placed on the vehicle was observed to be higher than the wind turbine-caused energy loss. Thus, it was determined that the study positively contributed to the prolongation of the vehicle driving distance on a single charge.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-11-07
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-05-13
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 4, PAGES [2907 - 2917]
  1. Jacobson, M. Z., Review of Solutions to Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Security, Energy & Environmental Science, 2 (1999), 2, pp. 148-173
  2. Ozer, S., et al., Effects of Fusel Oil in a Thermal Coated Engine, Fuel, 306 (2021), 121716
  3. Burch, I., Gilchrist, J., Survey of Global Activity to Phase Out Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, Center of Climate Protection: Santa Rosa, Cal., USA
  4. Michaelides, E. E., Primary Energy Use and Environmental Effects of Electric Vehicles, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 12 (2021), 3, 138
  5. Blagojević, I. A., et al., The Future (and The Present) of Motor Vehicle Propulsion Systems, Thermal Science, 23 (2019), 5, pp. 1727-1743
  6. Liu, Z., et al., Comparing Total Cost of Ownership of Battery Electric Vehicles and Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles, Energy Policy, 158 (2021), 112564
  7. Petrović, Đ. T., et al.,. Electric Cars: Are They Solution Reduce CO2 Emission, Thermal Science, 24 (2020), 5 Part A, pp. 2879-2889
  8. Puma-Benavides, D. S., et al., A systematic Review of Technologies, Control Methods, and Optimization for Extended-Range Electric Vehicles, Applied Sciences, 11 (2021), 15, 7095
  9. Tran, M. K., et al., A Review of Range Extenders in Battery Electric Vehicles: Current Progress and Future Perspectives, World Electric Vehicle Journal, 12 (2021), 2, 54
  10. Cano, Z. P., et al., Batteries and Fuel Cells for Emerging Electric Vehicle Markets, Nature Energy, 3 (2018), 4, pp. 279-289
  11. Tolmachev, Y. V., et al., Energy Cycle Based on A High Specific Energy Aqueous Flow Battery and Its Potential Use for Fully Electric Vehicles and for Direct Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 19 (2015), 9, pp. 2711-2722
  12. Tie, S. F., Tan, C. W., A Review of Energy Sources and Energy Management System in Electric Vehicles, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20 (2013), Apr., pp. 82-102
  13. Puma-Benavides, D. S., et al., A Systematic Review of Technologies, Control Methods, and Optimization for Extended-Range Electric Vehicles, Applied Sciences, 11 (2021), 15, 7095
  14. Xiao, B., et al., A Review of Pivotal Energy Management Strategies for Extended Range Electric Vehicles, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 149 (2021), 111194
  15. Thanapalan, K., et al., Renewable Hydrogen Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Optimal Energy Recovery Systems, Proceedings, 2012 UKACC International Conference on Control, Cardiff, UK, 2012, pp. 935-940
  16. Ferraris, A., et al., Integrated Design and Control of Active Aerodynamic Features for High Performance Electric Vehicles, SAE Technical Paper 2020-36-0079, 2021
  17. Huluka, A. W., Kim, C. H., A Numerical Analysis on Ducted Ahmed Model as a New Approach to Improve Aerodynamic Performance of Electric Vehicle, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 22 (2021), 2, pp. 291-299
  18. Lv, C., et al., Mechanism Analysis and Evaluation Methodology of Regenerative Braking Contribution Energy Efficiency Improvement of Electrified Vehicles, Energy Conversion and Management, 92 (2015), Mar., pp. 469-482
  19. Long, G., et al., Regenerative Active Suspension System With Residual Energy for In-Wheel Motor Driven Electric Vehicle, Applied Energy, 260 (2020), 114180, pp. 1-18
  20. Karana, D. R., Sahoo, R. R., Experimental Study on Exergy and Sustainability Analysis of the Thermoelectric Based Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System, International Journal of Exergy, 34 (2021), 1, pp. 1-15
  21. Yildiz, A., Dandil, B., Investigation of Effect of Vehicle Grilles on Aerodynamic Energy Loss and Drag Coefficient, Journal of Energy Systems, 2 (2018), 4, pp. 190-203
  22. Wu, J. D., Liu, J. C., Development of A Predictive System for Car Fuel Consumption Using an Artificial Neural Network, Expert Systems With Applications, 38 (2011), 5, pp. 4967-4971
  23. Hucho, W. H., The Aerodynamic Drag of Cars Current Understanding, Unresolved Problems, and Future Prospects, in: Aerodynamic Drag Mechanisms of Bluff Bodies and Road Vehicles, Springer, New York, USA, 1978, pp. 7-44
  24. Yildiz, A., Dandil, B., Power Generation Potential of Small Wind Turbine in Elazig Province, Turkey, Proceedings, 4th International Conference on Power Electronics and Their Applications (ICPEA), Elazig, Turkey, 2019, pp. 1-6

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence