International Scientific Journal


In the base, working of ventilation system can be analyzed in regular and incidental modes of operation. This paper concerns the specification of the longitudinal ventilation necessary to prevent upstream movement of combustion products in a tunnel fire. In this work the objective of the study is to analyze the road way tunnel ventilation system using CFD software to create comfort ventilation system in the tunnel. The comfort ventilation concept refers to the situation when air quality within the tunnel is reduced due to presence of polluted air in the tunnel. This paper is focused on ventilation system in a road traffic tunnel in moment of accident situation as fire. In this investigation numerical simulation of fire was carried out and determination of a critical air velocity depending on the power of the fire was conducted. The output results of the software developed for this purpose, which is also used in the realization of practical projects, are shown.
PAPER REVISED: 2022-04-02
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2022-04-16
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 4, PAGES [3587 - 3596]
  1. ***, World Road Association, "Road Tunnels: Operational Strategies for Emergency Ventilation", Technical Committee C3.3 Tunnel Operations, 2008.
  2. Thornton, W.M., The relation of oxygen to the head of combustion of organic Compounds, Edinburgh and Dublin philosophical magazine and journal of science, 33, London, (1917).
  3. Carvel R O, et al., "Fire size and fire spread in tunnel with longitudinal ventilation systems", Journal of Fire Sciences, 23, (2005), pp. 485-517.
  4. Y. Liu, V. Apte, et al, A methodology for life safety assessment of tunnel fire, Journal of fire protection engineering, 17, (2007), 1, pp. 65-79.
  5. ***, PIARC Technical Committee on Road Tunnel, Road Tunnels: Operational Strategies for Emergency Ventilation, reference 2011Ro2, PIARC, Paris, 2011.
  6. Maksimovic, M., Main Project of Ventilation System in Tunnel ČEMERNO, MAKSPRO d.o.o. Belgrade, Serbia, 2009.
  7. Sturm, P., Beyer, M., Rafiei, On the Problem of Ventilation Control in Case of a Tunnel Fire Event, Proceedings, Case Studies in Fire Safety, CSFS 22, Elsevier Publishing, 2015, pp. 36-43, doi 10.1016/j.csfs.2015.11.001.
  8. Stašević, M., et al, ‘The Best Technological Innovation 2016' of the Republic of Serbia (team ‘Tunnel' Zrenjanin, innovative service: ‘Design of ventilation and fire protection of the road traffic tunnel'), 2016.
  9. ***, EU Directive 2004/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 29 April 2004 on minimum safety requirements for tunnels in the Trans-European Road Network, Official Journal of the European Union L167 of 30 April, 2004.
  10. Myrvang T., Khawaja H., Validation of air ventilation in tunnels, using experiments and computational fluid dynamics, Int. Jnl. of Multiphysics, 12, (2018), 3, pp. 295-311.
  11. Chow, W.K., On smoke control for tunnels by longitudinal ventilation, Tunnel. Undergr. Space Techn., 13, (1998), 3, pp. 271-275, doi: 10.1016/S0886-7798(98)00061-3.
  12. ***, Technical Committee 5 Road Tunnels, Systems and equipment for fire and smoke control in road tunnels, PIARC Ref. 3 05.16.BEN, 2007, ISBN 2-84060-189-3.
  13. Danziger, N.H., Kennedy. W.D., Longitudinal ventilation analysis for the Glenwood canyon tunnels, Proceedings, 4th Int. Symp. Aerodynamics and Ventilation of Vehicle Tunnels, York, England, 1982, pp.169-186.
  14. Šekularac M., Janković N., Vukoslavčević P., Ventilation performance and pollutant flow in a unidirectional-traffic road tunnel, Thermal Science, 21, (2017), 3, pp. 5783-5794.
  15. ***, RABT, Richtlinien für die Ausstattung und den Betrieb von Straßentunneln, published by Forschungsgesellschaft für das Straßen- und Verkehrswesen e.V., Cologne, Germany, ISBN 3-937356-87-8, 2006.
  16. ***, RVS 09.02.31, Tunnelausrüstung, Belüftung, Grundlagen (Tunnel equipment, ventilation, basic principles), Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Innovation und Technologie, GZ. BMVIT-300. 041/0029-IV/ST-ALG/2014 Österreichische Forschungsgesellschaft Straße-Schiene-Verkehr, Vienna, Austria, 2001.
  17. Stašević M., Maksimović M., Vasović I., Maksimović K., Stašević M., Ventilation and protection of road traffic tunnel, Structural Integrity and Life, 19, (2019), 2, pp. 139-142.
  18. ***, ANSYS FLUENT software code- Theoretical manuals.
  19. F. Tarada, New prospectives on the critical velocity for smoke Control, Proceedings, International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2010.
  20. L. Barbato, et al., Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longiudinally ventilated tunnel fires, Fire Safety Journal, 45, (2010), pp. 361-370.
  21. Lea C.J., CFD modelling of the control of smoke movement from tunnel fires using longitudinal ventilation, Proceedings, The First International Symposium of IAFSS, August, ETH, Zurich, 1995.
  22. Feng Wang, Yu Wang, Yubing Huang, Oixiang Yan, Experimental study on the smoke temperature distribution alongside the lining in tunnel fires, Thermal Science, 23, (2019), 6, pp. 3701-3710.
  23. ***, PIARC Technical Committee on Road Tunnels, Fire and Smoke Control in Road Tunnels, reference 05.05.BEN, PIARC, Paris, 1999.
  24. Rattei G, et al., How frequent are fire in tunnels - Analysis from Austrian tunnel incident statistics. In: Proceedings, the Seventh International Conference on Tunnel Safety and Ventilation, Graz, Austria, 2014, pp 5-11
  25. Beard A, Scott P, Prevention and protection: overview. In: Carvel R, Beard A (eds) Handbook of Tunnel Fire Safety, 2nd edn. ICE Publishing, London, 2012, pp 67-88.
  26. Bilson M, Purchase A, Determining benefits of fixed fire fighting systems in road tunnels - A risk-based approach. In: Ingason H, Lönnermark A (eds. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden) Proceedings, the Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS 2014), Marseille, France, 2014, pp. 475-484.
  27. Bjelland H, Engineering Safety with Applications to Fire Safety Design of Buildings and Road Tunnels. University of Stavanger, Norway, Stavanger, 2013.
  28. ***, CPR Regulation (EU) No 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 laying down harmonised conditions for the marketing of construction products. EUR-Lex, Brussels, 2011.
  29. ***, Enclosed Vehicular Facilities, ASHRAE Applications Handbook. ASHRAE, American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc., USA, 2007.
  30. ***, National Fire Protection Association, Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, and Other Limited Access Highways (NPFA 502). USA, 2008.

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence