International Scientific Journal


Boilers are one of the most used units for both heat generation plants and industry systems. Their operation is subjected to different working loads and maintenance requirements. Exploitation experience points out critical boiler zones where failures and break downs typically occur. This paper analyzes critical zones in hot water fire-tube boiler. Experimental procedure was performed on the model of this type of boilers and its critical element. The tube plate of hot water boiler was identified as the most critical one. Experimental analysis and numerical model verification were performed using Aramis system based on 3-D digital image correlation method. Numerical analysis was done in ANSYS software package and verification of results was done based on measurements obtained by strain gauges and local measurements performed by the Aramis system. Stress-strain analysis indicates the critical zones of boiler tube plate. The character of change parameters such as strain and stress occurring in the critical zones can be verified both by experimental and numerical data. The paper presents a novel approach in experimental and numerical analyses that can be conducted in similar units and used for existing unit optimization, as well as for new product testing on different loads and provide opportunity for further development and improvement for practical industrial application.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-05-07
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-05-07
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [2135 - 2145]
  1. Nazeer,W. A., et al., In-situ Species, Temperature and Velocity Measurements in a Pulverized Coal Flame, Combustion Sciences and Technology, 143 (1999), 2, pp. 63-77
  2. Gulič, M., et al., Steam boilers (in Serbian language Parni Kotlovi), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, 1991
  3. Gaćeša, B., Numerical-experimental analysis of strength of boiler structures, Ph.D. thesis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, 2011
  4. EN 12953 - Shell Boilers - General, Materials for pressure parts of boilers and accessories, Design and calculation for pressure parts, Requirements for equipment for the boiler, 2012
  5. Rajic, M., et al., Construction optimization of hot water fire-tube boiler using thermo mechanical finite element analysis, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), Suppl.5, pp. 1511-1523
  6. Qian, C.F., et al., Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Tubesheet Structure, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 131 (2009), 1, pp. 111-114
  7. Yong Ling, Y., JU, Y., The Analysis of the Stress and Shift of Tube plate and Edge of Manhole of Boiler, Journal of Dalian Fisheries University, 1 (2000), 1, pp.71-75
  8. Čukić, R., Maneski, T., Thermomechanical Stress Analysis of the Hot-water Boiler by FEM, Proceedings, Third International Congress of Thermal Stress 99, Cracow, Poland, 1999
  9. Liu-Juan, Z., Wen-Zhong, C., ZHU, L., CAI, W., Finite Element Analysis of Overall Strength of Shell and Tube Waste Heat Recovery Boiler, Industrial Boiler, 1 (2009), 1, pp. 19-22
  10. Yong-Ling, J., Min, T., Simplification of Models and Stress Calculation of Smoke Tubes for Boilers, Journal of Anshan Institute of iron and steel technology, 4 (2000), 23, pp. 282-286
  11. Gong-Ping, W., Ji-Peng, Z., Wu, G., Zhao, J., The Cause and Prevention of the Tube Plate Crack of One Gas-fired Boiler, Industrial Boiler , 1 (2009), 1, pp. 54
  12. Ji, Z., et al., Thermo-plastic finite element analysis for metal honeycomb structure, Thermal Science, 17 (2013), 5, pp. 1285-1291
  13. Gaćeša, B., Thermomechanical analysis of behaviour and improvement of steam block-boiler with three flue gas flows producing smaller steam, Procesna tehnika, 18 (2002), 1, pp. 111-114
  14. Todorovic, M., et al., Application of energy and exergy analysis to increase efficiency of a hot water gas fired boiler, Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. Q., 20 (2014), 4, pp. 511-521
  15. Gaćeša, B., et al., Numerical and experimental strength analysis of fire-tube boiler construction, Tehnički vjesnik, 18 (2011), 2, pp. 237-242
  16. Gaćeša, B., et al., Influence of Furnace Tube Shape on Thermal Strain of Fire-Tube Boilers, Thermal Science, 18 (2014), Suppl. 1, pp. S29-S47
  17. Živković, D., et al., Thermomechanical Finite Element Analysis of Hot Water Boiler Structure, Thermal Science, 16 (2012), Suppl. 2, pp. 443 - 456
  18. Živković, D., et al., Numerical method application for thermo-mechanical analysis of hot water boilers construction, Proceedings, 24th International Conference On Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation And Environmental Impact Of Energy Systems - ECOS 2011, Novi Sad, Serbia, 2011, pp. 1351 - 1362
  19. Milćić, D., et al., Finite Element Thermal Analysis of Hot Water Boilers, Proceedings, 14th Symposium on Thermal Science and Engineering of Serbia - SIMTERM 2009, Sokobanja, Serbia, 2009, pp. 692-697
  20. Jian, H., YuPeter G. D., Dynamic Impact Deformation Analysis Using High-speed Cameras and ARAMIS Photogrammetry Software, Army Research Laboratory - ARL report number ARL-TR-5212, 2010
  21. Orteu, J., 3-D computer vision in experimental mechanics, Opt. Lasers Eng. 47 (2009), pp. 282-291
  22. Pan, B., et al., Optimization of a three-dimensional digital image correlation system for deformation measurements in extreme environments, Appl. Opt. 51 (2012), pp. 440-449
  23. Sutton, M., et al., Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and Deformation Measurements: Basic Concepts, Theory and Applications, Springer, Berlin, 2009
  24. Mitrović, N., et al., Experimental and numerical study of globe valve housing, Chemical Industry, 71 (2017), 3, pp. 251-257
  25. Milosevic, M., et al., Digital image correlation in analysis of stiffness in local zones of welded joints, Technical Gazette, 23 (2016), pp. 19-24
  26. Mitrovic, N., et al., Strain measurement of pressure equipment components using 3D DIC method, Proceedings, Structural Integrity Procedia 13, 22nd European Conference on Fracture - ECF22, 2018, pp. 1605-1608
  27. Milosevic, M., et al., Measurement of local tensile properties of welded joint using Digital Image Correlation method, Chemicke Listy, 106 (2012), pp. 485-488
  28. Lezaja, M., et al., Bond strength of restorative materials to hydroxyapatite inserts and dimensional changes of insert-containing restorations during polymerization, Dental Materials, 31 (2015), 2, pp. 171-181
  29. Milosevic, M., et al., Digital Image Correlation Analysis of Biomaterials, Proceedings, 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems, 2011, pp. 421-425
  30. Tanasic, I., et al., Enhanced in-vivo bone formation by bone marrow differentiated mesenchymal stem cells grown in chitosan scaffold, J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci., 2 (2012), 1, pp. 1-6
  31. Mitrovic, A., et al., Thermal and Mechanical Characteristics of Dual Cure Self-etching, Self-adhesive Resin Based Cement, Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Materials Science and Engineering, 54 (2018), pp. 3-15
  32. Milosevic, M., et al., Analysis of Composite Shrinkage Stresses on 3D Premolar Models with Different Cavity Design using Finite Element Method, Key Engineering Materials, 586 (2014), pp. 202-205
  33. Tanasic, I., et al., Analysing Displacement in the Posterior Mandible using Digital Image Correlation Method, J Biochip Tissue chip, S1(2011), pp.1-6
  34. Petrovic, S., et al., Rapid Evaluation of Maintenance Process Using Statistical Process Control and Simulation, Int. Journal of Simulation Modelling, 17 (2018), 1, pp. 119-132
  35. Sadowski, T., et al., Modelling and experimental study of parallel cracks propagation in an orthotropic elastic material, Comput. Mater. Sci., 52 (2012), pp. 231-235
  36. Balac, M., et al., Numerical predictions of crack growth in a pressure vessel with welded nozzles, Structural Integ. Life., 15 (2015), pp. 55-61
  37. Rajic, M., et al., Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Stress-Strain Field of the Modelled Boiler Element, Experimental and Computational Investigations in Engineering. CNNTech 2020. Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer, Cham, 153 (2021), pp. 257-273
  38. Aramis - 3D Deformation Analysis, GOM, Germany,

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence