International Scientific Journal


Power chips with high power dissipation and high heat flux have caused serious thermal management problems. Traditional indirect cooling technologies could not satisfy the increasing heat dissipation requirements. The embedded cooling directly inside the chip is the hot spot of the current research, which bears greater cooling potential comparatively, due to the shortened heat transfer path and decreased thermal resistance. In this study, the thermal behaviors of the power chips were demonstrated using a thermal test chip, which was etched with micro-channels on its substrate’s backside and bonded with a manifold which also fabricated with silicon wafer. The chip has normal thermal test function and embedded cooling function at the same time, and its size is 7 × 7 × 1.125 mm3. This paper mainly discussed the influence of width of micro-channels and the number of manifold channels on the thermal and hydraulic performance of the embedded cooling structure in the single-phase regime. Compared with the conventional straight micro-channel structure, the cooling coefficient of performance of the 8 × –50 (number of manifold distribution channels: 8, micro-channel width: 50 μm) structure is 3.38 times higher. It is verified that the 8 × –50 structure is capable of removing power dissipation of 300 W (heat flux: 1200 W/cm2) at a maximum junction temperature of 69.6℃ with pressure drop of less than 90.8 kPa. This study is beneficial to promote the embedded cooling research, which could enable the further release of the power chips performance limited by the dissipated heat.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-10-01
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-10-12
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 2, PAGES [1531 - 1543]
  1. Avram, B.C., et al., Gen3 embedded cooling for high power RF components, in: IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS), Tel-Aviv, 2017, pp. 1-8.
  2. Avram, B.C., et al., DARPA's intra/interchip enhanced cooling (ICECool) program, in: Proceedings of the Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Conference (CS MANTECH), New Orleans, Louisiana, 2013, pp. 171-174.
  3. Li, M., et al., Synergistic effect of carbon fiber and graphite on reducing thermal resistance of thermal interface materials, Composites Science and Technology, 212. (2021), pp. 108883.
  4. Lin, H., et al., Comprehensive thermal resistance model of forced air cooling system for multiple power chips, Energy Reports, 7. (2021), pp. 261-267.
  5. Liang, S., et al., Structural optimization and numerical thermal analysis of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with high-power multi-chip arrays, Optik, 222. (2020), pp. 16533.
  6. Tan, H., et al., Temperature uniformity in convective leaf vein-shaped fluid microchannels for phased array antenna cooling, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 150. (2020), pp. 106224.
  7. Kang, T., et al., Enhanced Thermal Management of GaN Power Amplifier Electronics with Micro-Pin Fin Heat Sinks, Electronics, 9. (2020), 11, pp. 1778.
  8. John. D., Embedded microfluidic cooling of high heat flux electronic components, S3-P10: Lester Eastman Conference on High Performance Devices (LEC), 2014, pp. 1-4.
  9. Tuckerman, D. B., Implications of High-Performance Heat Sinking for Electron Devices, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, 28. (1981), 10, pp. 1230-1231.
  10. Morini, G.L., Single-phase convective heat transfer in microchannels: a review of experimental results, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43. (2004), 7, pp. 631-651.
  11. Kandlikar, S.G., High Flux Heat Removal with Microchannels—A Roadmap of Challenges and Opportunities, Heat Transfer Engineering, 26. (2005), 8, pp. 5-14.
  12. Deng, D., et al., A review on flow boiling enhancement and fabrication of enhanced microchannels of microchannel heat sinks, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 175. (2021), pp. 121332.
  13. Kong, D., et al., Single-phase thermal and hydraulic performance of embedded silicon micro-pin fin heat sinks using R245fa, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 141. (2019), pp. 145-155.
  14. Zeng, L., et al., Thermal and flow performance in microchannel heat sink with open-ring pin fins, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 200. (2021), pp. 106445.
  15. Farzaneh, M., et al., Design of bifurcating microchannels with/without loops for cooling of square-shaped electronic components, Applied Thermal Engineering, 108. (2016), pp. 581-595.
  16. Yu, X.-f., et al., A study on the hydraulic and thermal characteristics in fractal tree-like microchannels by numerical and experimental methods, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55. (2012), 25-26, pp. 7499-7507.
  17. Zhuang, D., et al., Optimization of Microchannel Heat Sink with Rhombus Fractal-like Units for Electronic Chip Cooling, International Journal of Refrigeration, 116. (2020), pp. 108-118.
  18. Ryu, J.H., et al., Three-dimensional numerical optimization of a manifold microchannel heat sink, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 46. (2003), pp. 1553-1562.
  19. Zhang, Y., et al., Effects of channel shape on the cooling performance of hybrid micro-channel and slot-jet module, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 113. (2017), pp. 295-309.
  20. Andhare, R.S., et al., Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a flat plate manifold microchannel heat exchanger in counter flow configuration, Applied Thermal Engineering, 96. (2016), pp. 178-189.
  21. Jung, K.W., et al., Embedded cooling with 3D manifold for vehicle power electronics application: Single-phase thermal-fluid performance, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 130. (2019), pp. 1108-1119.
  22. Drummond, K.P., et al., A hierarchical manifold microchannel heat sink array for high-heat-flux two-phase cooling of electronics, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 117. (2018), pp. 319-330.
  23. Escher, W., et al., A novel high performance, ultra thin heat sink for electronics, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 31. (2010), 4, pp. 586-598.

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence