International Scientific Journal


A number of thermal management devices are used to actuate concentrated electronic appliances in an efficient way. A liquid cooling plate acts as a heat sink enclosed by materialized walls. This work aims to carry out design of liquid cooling plates such that the heat diffused by the electronic equipment is removed while their temperatures levels remain within safe limits. The liquid cooling plates expose “cold surfaces” to electronic appliances. The performance of a cooling plate is estimated depending upon heat carrying capacity, associated heat transfer rates and concentrated thermal regions on the plate surface. For this study, the design of liquid cooling plate was done with SOLIDWORKS. Pure water was used as a working fluid in test channels. A comparative analysis of flow distribution, temperature contours, pressure drop, and pumping power for different channel configurations was carried out with ANSYS. It was observed that a channel configuration is of key importance in liquid cooling plates. The findings from this study are beneficial for the optimum design of cooling systems for high heat flux applications, i.e., in electronic devices, computer processors and automotive engines.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-04-29
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-05-11
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 2, PAGES [1463 - 1475]
  1. Zhang, H., et al. Thermal management of high power dissipation electronic packages: From air cooling to liquid cooling. in Proceedings of the 5th Electronics Packaging Technology Conference (EPTC 2003). 2003. IEEE.
  2. Sauciuc, L., et al. Air-cooling extension-performance limits for processor cooling applications. in Ninteenth Annual IEEE Semiconductor Thermal Measurement and Management Symposium, 2003. 2003. IEEE.
  3. Suo, N., et al., Research on thermal design control and optimization of relay protection and automation equipment, Thermal Science, 24(2020), 5, pp. 3119-3128
  4. Garimella, S.V., et al., Thermal challenges in next generation electronic systems-summary of panel presentations and discussions, IEEE Transactions on Components Packaging Technologies, 25(2002), 4, pp. 569-575
  5. Yang, M., et al., Numerical study on flow and heat transfer of a hybrid microchannel cooling scheme using manifold arrangement and secondary channels, Applied Thermal Engineering, 159(2019), pp. 113896
  6. Yang, M., et al., Multi-objective optimization of a hybrid microchannel heat sink combining manifold concept with secondary channels, Applied Thermal Engineering, 181(2020), pp. 115592
  7. Harms, T.M., et al., Developing convective heat transfer in deep rectangular microchannels, International Journal of Heat Fluid Flow, 20(1999), 2, pp. 149-157
  8. Scholta, J., et al., Externally cooled high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack, Journal of Power Sources, 190(2009), 1, pp. 83-85
  9. Kandlikar, S.G., et al., Thermal management issues in a PEMFC stack-A brief review of current status, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(2009), 7, pp. 1276-1280
  10. Gao, Y., et al., A parametric study of characteristics of concentrating PV modules, International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies, 5(2010), 2, pp. 57-62
  11. Rosell, J., et al., Design and simulation of a low concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system, Energy Conversion Management, 46(2005), 18-19, pp. 3034-3046
  12. Dogruoz, M.B., et al., Experiments and modeling of the hydraulic resistance and heat transfer of in-line square pin fin heat sinks with top by-pass flow, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 48(2005), 23-24, pp. 5058-5071
  13. Yang, Y.-T., et al., Numerical study of pin-fin heat sink with un-uniform fin height design, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 51(2008), 19-20, pp. 4788-4796
  14. Naphon, P., et al., Numerical investigation on the heat transfer and flow in the mini-fin heat sink for CPU, International Communications in Heat Mass Transfer, 36(2009), 8, pp. 834-840
  15. Walsh, E., et al., Low profile fan and heat sink thermal management solution for portable applications, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 46(2007), 11, pp. 1182-1190
  16. Wadsworth, D., et al., Cooling of a multichip electronic module by means of confined two-dimensional jets of dielectric liquid, (1990),
  17. Xie, G., et al., Thermal analysis of the influent of chip arrangement of a water-cooled minichannel heat sink, Thermal Science, 20(2016), 2, pp. 381-389
  18. Tzeng, S.-C.J.I.j.o.h., et al., Spatial thermal regulation of aluminum foam heat sink using a sintered porous conductive pipe, International journal of heat mass transfer, 50(2007), 1-2, pp. 117-126
  19. Sung, M.K., et al., Single-phase and two-phase hybrid cooling schemes for high-heat-flux thermal management of defense electronics, Journal of Electronic Packaging, 131(2009), 2,
  20. Nayak, K., et al., A numerical model for heat sinks with phase change materials and thermal conductivity enhancers, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 49(2006), 11-12, pp. 1833-1844
  21. Klein, D., et al., Heat transfer characteristics of water and APG surfactant solution in a micro-channel heat sink, International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 31(2005), 4, pp. 393-415
  22. Bello-Ochende, T., et al., Maximal heat transfer density: Plates with multiple lengths in forced convection, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 43(2004), 12, pp. 1181-1186
  23. Shao, W., et al., Operation Optimization of Liquid Cooling Systems in Data Centers by the Heat Current Method and Artificial Neural Network, Journal of Thermal Science, (2020),
  24. Husain, A., et al., Thermal optimization of a microchannel heat sink with trapezoidal cross section, Journal of Electronic Packaging, 131(2009), 2,
  25. Yang, M., et al., Experimental study on single-phase hybrid microchannel cooling using HFE-7100 for liquid-cooled chips, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 160(2020), pp. 120230
  26. Kandlikar, S., et al., Measurement of flow maldistribution in parallel channels and its application to ex-situ and in-situ experiments in PEMFC water management studies, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 52(2009), 7-8, pp. 1741-1752
  27. Lalot, S., et al., Flow maldistribution in heat exchangers, Applied thermal engineering, 19(1999), 8, pp. 847-863
  28. Wen, J., et al., An experimental and numerical investigation of flow patterns in the entrance of plate-fin heat exchanger, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 49(2006), 9-10, pp. 1667-1678
  29. Sun, S., et al., 3D topology optimization of heat sinks for liquid cooling, Applied Thermal Engineering, 178(2020), pp. 115540
  30. Lorente, S., et al., Optimization of tree‐shaped flow distribution structures over a disc‐shaped area, International Journal of Energy Research, 27(2003), 8, pp. 715-723
  31. Luo, L., et al., Multiscale optimization of flow distribution by constructal approach, China Particuology, 3(2005), 06, pp. 329-336
  32. Bejan, A., Convection heat transfer. 2013: John wiley & sons.
  33. Li, P., et al. Analysis and optimization of flow distribution channels for uniform flow in fuel cells. in Fluids Engineering Division Summer Meeting. 2008.
  34. Kroeker, C., et al., Three-dimensional thermal analysis of heat sinks with circular cooling micro-channels, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 47(2004), 22, pp. 4733-4744
  35. Toh, K., et al., Numerical computation of fluid flow and heat transfer in microchannels, International Journal of Heat Mass Transfer, 45(2002), 26, pp. 5133-5141
  36. Mitra, I., et al., Mini-channel heat sink parameter sensitivity based on precise heat flux re-distribution, Thermal Science Engineering Progress, 20(2020), pp. 100717
  37. Li, P., et al., Effects of outflow boundary condition on convective heat transfer with strong recirculating flow, Wärme-und Stoffübertragung, 29(1994), 8, pp. 463-470
  38. Patankar, S.V.J.C., New York, Numerical heat transfer and fluid flow, Hemisphere Publ, 58(1980),
  39. Fan, Z., et al., Experimental investigation of the flow distribution of a 2-dimensional constructal distributor, Experimental Thermal Fluid Science, 33(2008), 1, pp. 77-83

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence