International Scientific Journal


Safe storage of pharmaceutical products is of great importance due to potential hazards for human health. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of pharmaceutical storage to recover design temperature during ventilation system recovery. The performed CFD simulations showed good agreement with experimental temperature measurements. Numerical results allowed in-depth analysis of flow field and temperature distribution inside the storage. It was discovered that the flow field is highly non-uniform, which consequently leads to an uneven temperature distribution of pallets with products. However, a high inlet mass-flow rate ensured that all pallets reach the designed temperature.
PAPER REVISED: 2021-10-10
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-10-22
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2022, VOLUME 26, ISSUE Issue 1, PAGES [801 - 814]
  1. Baruffaldi, G., et al., The storage of perishable products: A decision-support tool to manage temperature-sensitive products warehouses, Sustainable Food Supply Chains: Planning, Design, and Control through Interdisciplinary Methodologies, 1 (2019), 1, pp. 131-143
  2. Shen, T., et al., Recent application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in process safety and loss prevention: A review, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 67 (2020), 104252
  3. Ho, S. H., et al., Numerical simulation of temperature and velocity in a refrigerated warehouse, International Journal of Refrigeration, 33 (2010), 5, pp. 1015-1025
  4. Wu, X., et al., The Numerical Investigation of Temperature and Velocity Distribution in the High-Bay Depot, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 6 (2014), 1, 541726
  5. Hoang, H. M., et al., Preliminary study of airflow and heat transfer in a cold room filled with apple pallets: Comparison between two modelling approaches and experimental results, Applied Thermal Engineering, 76 (2015), pp. 367-381
  6. Kaood, A., et al., Numerical investigation of the flow fields and thermal patterns in a large cold store (I), ASME Power Conference, 50213 (2016)
  7. Parpas, D., et al., Experimental investigation and modelling of thermal environment control of air distribution systems for chilled food manufacturing facilities, Applied Thermal Engineering, 127 (2017), pp. 1326-1339
  8. Sularno, A., et al., Experimental and numerical investigation of cooling performance of a cold storage in a pharmaceutical industry, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1090 (2018), 12012
  9. Parpas, D., et al., Investigation into air distribution systems and thermal environment control in chilled food processing facilities, International Journal of Refrigeration, 87 (2018), pp. 47-64
  10. Ghiloufi, Z. and Khir T., CFD modeling and optimization of pre-cooling conditions in a cold room located in the South of Tunisia and filled with dates, Journal of food science and technology, 56 (2019), 8, pp. 3668-3676
  11. Tanaka, F., et al., The use of CFD to improve the performance of a partially loaded cold store, Journal of Food Process Engineering, 35 (2012), 6, pp. 874-880
  12. Špiljar, Ž., et al., Analysis of jet fan ventilation system installed in an underground car park with partition walls, Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems 6 (2018), 2, pp. 228-239
  13. Jiaming, G., et al., Characteristic analysis of humidity control in a fresh-keeping container using CFD model, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 179 (2020), 105816
  14. Sajadiye, S. and Zolfaghari, M., Simulation of in-line versus staggered arrays of vented pallet boxes for assessing cooling performance of orange in cool storage, Applied Thermal Engineering, 115 (2017), pp. 337-349
  15. Health Products Regulatory Authority., Guide to Good Distribution Practice of Medicinal Products for Human Use Guidelines for good practice in distribution, Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, pp. 30/10, 107/12, 2016
  16. ISO IEC., General Requirements for the Competence of Testing and Calibration Laboratories." International Organization for Standardization, Geneva 27, Switzerland, 2017
  17. WHO Technical Report Series No. 961, Annex 9: Model guidance for the storage and transport of time and temperature-sensitive pharmaceutical products - Qualification of temperature-controlled storage areas, World Health Organization, Geneva 27, Switzerland, 2011
  18. Delele, M. A., et al., Optimization of the humidification of cold stores by pressurized water atomizers based on a multiscale CFD model, Journal of food engineering, 91 (2009), 2, pp. 228-239
  19. Delele, M. A., et al., Studying airflow and heat transfer characteristics of a horticultural produce packaging system using a 3-D CFD model. Part I: Model development and validation, Postharvest Biology and Technology, 86 (2013), pp. 536-545
  20. Menter, F. R., Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications, AIAA journal, 32 (1994), 8, pp. 1598-1605
  21. Sadrehaghighi, I., Structure Meshing for CFD,, Report No. 2.20, Annapolis, united States, 2020
  22. Foster, A. M., et al., Three-dimensional effects of an air curtain used to restrict cold room infiltration, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 31 (2007), 6, pp. 1109-1123
  23. Jiying, L., et al., A Review of CFD Analysis Methods for Personalized Ventilation (PV) in Indoor Built Environments, Sustainability, 11 (2019), 15, 4166
  24. ASHRAE, HVAC Applications, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, United States, 2019
  25. Getahun, E., et al., Importance of integrated CFD and product quality modeling of solar dryers for fruits and vegetables: A review, Solar Energy, 220 (2021), pp 88-110
  26. Wakao N. and Kaguei, S., Heat and mass transfer in packed beds, John Wiley and Sons., New York, United States, 1983

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence