## THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

### COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS PARAMETRIC INVESTIGATION FOR TWO-PHASE FLOW OF AMMONIA-WATER MIXING IN BUBBLE PUMP TUBE

**ABSTRACT**

The 2-D numerical simulation of two-phase NH3-water flowing under uniformly heated tube is used. The ANSYS FLUENT is used to predict the time evolution of thermal and hydrodynamic parameters of the bubble pump. Phase-dependent turbulent models are used to calculate the turbulent viscosity of each phase. Through user-defined functions, different interfacial force models and the wall boiling model are implemented in the code. The simulation results show a slow oscillation of hydrodynamic parameters such as: pressure, mass flux, vapor velocity, and liquid velocity during the initial stage of operation. However, a vigorous oscillation is detected for the temperature behavior. The amplitude and period of oscillation decrease with the heat input increasing. By using the void fraction contour, it is possible to predict the flow regime along the bubble pump at different times of the operation. The domination of flow regime is the function of heat flux too. It is bubbly to slug for heat fluxes less than 5 kW/m² and transits from churn to annular for 15 kW/m² and 50 kW/m² of heat flux.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2019-01-12

PAPER REVISED: 2019-06-30

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-08-03

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2019-09-15

**THERMAL SCIENCE** YEAR

**2021**, VOLUME

**25**, ISSUE

**Issue 1**, PAGES [433 - 448]

- Benhmidene, A., et al., A Review of Bubble Pump Technologies, Journal Applied Sciences, 10 (2010), 16, pp. 1806-1813
- Zhang, A. M., et al., Experimental Study on Bubble Dynamics Subject to Buoyancy, Journal Fluid Mechanics, 10 (2015), 15, pp. 137-160
- Kaniowski, R., Poniewsky, M., Measurements of Two-Phase Flow Patterns and Local Void Fraction in Vertical Rectangular Minichannel, Archive Thermodynamic, 34 (2013), 2, pp. 3-21
- Han, H. X., et al., Experimental Investigation on the Pumping Performance of Bubble Pump with Organic Solutions, Applied Thermal Engineering, 86 (2015), July, pp. 43-48
- Delano, A. D., Design Analysis of the Einstein Refrigeration Cycle, Ph. D. thesis., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Geo., USA, 1998
- White, S. J., Bubble Pump Design and Performance, M. Sc. thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Geo., USA, 2001
- Aman, J., et al., Performance Characterization of a Bubble Pump for Vapor Absorption Refrigeration System, International Journal Refrigeration, 85 (2018), Jan., pp. 58-69
- Dammak N., et al., Optimization of the Geometrical Parameters of a Solar Bubble Pump for Absorption-Diffusion Cooling Systems, American Journal Engineering Applied Sciences, 3 (2010), 4, pp. 693-698
- Ma, Z., et al., Practical Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flow and Heat Transfer Phenomena in a Thermosyphon for Design and Development, Compit. Science-ICCS, (2009), pp. 665-674
- Benhmidene, A., et al., Modelling of Boiling Two-phase Flow in the Bubble Pump of Diffusion-Absorption Refrigeration Cycles, Chemical Engineering Communications, 202 (2015), 1, pp. 15-24
- Benhmidene, A., et al., Modelling of the heat flux received by a bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles, Heat Mass Transfer, 47 (2011), 11, pp. 1341-1347
- Benhmidene, A., et al., Numerical Prediction of Flow Patterns in the Bubble Pump, ASME Trans. Fluids Engineering, 133 (2011), 3, pp. 031302-031309
- Benhmidene, A., et al., Effect of Operating Conditions on the Performance of the Bubble Pump of Absorption Diffusion Refrigeration Cycles, Thermal Sciences, 15 (2011), 3, pp. 793-806
- Garma, R., et al., Numerical Investigations of the Heating Distribution Effect on the Boiling Flow in the Bubble Pumps, International Journal Hydrogen Energy, 39 (2014), 27, pp. 15256-15260
- Jo, S. W., et al., Numerical Simulations of Bubble Pumps, Proceeding, Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference, Toronto, Canada, 2012, pp. 217-228
- Gurevich, G., et al., Performance of a set of Parallel Bubble Pumps Operating with a Binary Solution of R134a-DMAC, Applied Thermal Engineering, 75 (2015), Jan., pp. 724-730
- Ezzine, B. N., et al., Experimental Studies on Bubble Pump Operated Diffusion Absorption Machine Based on Light Hydrocarbons for Solar Cooling, Renewable Energy, 35 (2014), 2, pp. 464-470
- Mansouri, R., et al., Experimental Investigations and Modelling of a Small Capacity Diffusion-Absorption Refrigerator in Dynamic Mode, Applied Thermal Engineering, 113 (2017), Feb., pp. 653-662
- Ishii, M., Zuber N., Drag Coefficient and Relative Velocity in Bubbly, Droplet or Particulate Flows, AIChE Journal, 25 (1979), 5, pp. 843-855
- Lime, J. F., Memorandum on Interfacial Drag from M. Ishii to R. Nelson, Los Alamos National Laboratory document, Los Alamos, N. Mex., USA, LA-UR-01-1591, July 28, 1987, 2001
- Kataoka I., Ishii M., Mechanism and Correlation of Droplet Entrainment and Deposition in Annular Two-Phase Flow, Argonne National Laboratory Report, Lemont, Ill., USA, ANL-82-44 (NUREG/CR-2885), 1982
- Tomiyama, A., et al., Transverse Migration of Single Bubbles in Simple Shear Flows, Chemical Engineering Sciences, 57 (2002), 1, pp. 1849-1858
- Burns, A. D., et al., The Favre Averaged Drag Model for Turbulence Dispersion in Eulerian Multi-Phase Flows, Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF'2004, Yokohama, Japan, 2004
- Launder, B. E., Spalding, D. B., Lectures in Mathematical Models of Turbulence, Academic Press, New York, USA, 1972
- Wintterle, T., Development of a Numerical Boundary Condition for the Simulation of Nucleate Boiling at Heated Walls, Ph. D. thesis, University Stuttgart, Stutgart, Germany, IKE-8-D-014, 2001
- Kader, B. A., Temperature and Concentration Profiles in Fully Turbulent Boundary Layers, International Journal Heat and Mass Transfer, 24 (1981), 9, pp. 1541-1544
- Cieslinski, J. T., et al., Flow Field around Growing and Rising Vapor Bubble by PIV Measurement, Journal of Visualization, 8 (2005), 3, pp. 209-216
- Mikic, B. B., Rohsenow, W. M., A New Correlation of Pool-Boiling Data Including the Fact of Heating Surface Characteristics, ASME Journal of Heat Transfer, 91 (1996), 2, pp. 245-250
- Ranz, W. E., Marshall, W. R., Evaporation From Drops, Chemical Engineering Progress, 48 (1952), 2, pp. 141-146
- Anglart, H., et al., CFD Prediction of Flow and Phase Distribution in Fuel Assemblies with Spacers, NU-RETH-7, 1995 Saratoga Springs, New York, Nuclear Engineering Design, 177 (1997), 1-3, pp. 215-228
- Tolubinsky, V. I., Kostanchuk, D. M., Vapor Bubbles Growth Rate and Heat Transfer Intensity at Sub-cooled Water Boiling. Heat Transfer, Preprints of Papers Presented at the 4thInternational Heat Transfer Conference, Paris, 5 (1970), B-2.8
- Lemmert, M., Chawla, J. M., Influence of Flow Velocity on Surface Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient, in: Heat Transfer (Eds. Boiling, Hahne, E., Grigull, U.), Academic Press and Hemisphere, New York, USA, 1977, pp. 237-247
- *** NIST, REFPROP User Manual, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA (2010)
- *** ASHRAE, Handbook: Fundamentals, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Georgia, USA, (2009)
- Lucas D., et al., Computational Fluid Dynamics for Gas-Liquid Flows, Science and Technology of Nuclear Installations, 2009 (2009), ID 725247