International Scientific Journal


Many traditional heating systems which are based on fossils face challenges such as lack of investment or unfavorable price regulations, low technical performance, environmental impacts and negative consumer perceptions. The CoolHeating project which is, funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 programme and presented in this paper promotes the implementation of small modular renewable heating and cooling grids for communities in South-Eastern Europe. Core project activities bincluded measures to stimulate the interest of communities and citizens to set-up renewable district heating systems in five target communities in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and North Macedonia up to the investment stage. Single criteria and multi-criteria assessment approaches, considering economic, environmental and social indicators of the targeted projects, have been applied in this work in order to investigate opportunities for the sustainable transition of the heating and cooling sectors of the target communities of Southeast Europe. Both approaches confirm the feasibilities of the transition from traditional to renewable energy-based heating systems for each target community in the countries of South-Eastern Europe. After simulation and replication of the results, the sustainability analysis indicatively shows that the transitions from traditional fossil-based, poor-maintained, and difficult-to-manage heating systems towards renewable district heating and cooling systems in Southeast Europe are sustainable solutions. Having in mind the modularity of such systems, those solutions can be replicated in other Southeast European cities and other countries.
PAPER REVISED: 2019-05-27
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2019-06-06
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2019, VOLUME 23, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [3293 - 3306]
  1. School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University Sweden, International review of district heating and cooling, Open Access Article, Energy, 137 (2017) pp. 617-631.
  2. European Commission. An EU strategy on heating and cooling. Communication COM. 2016. pp. 51. Brussels 2016.
  3. Werner, S, International review of district heating and cooling, Energy, 137 (2017), pp. 617-631.
  4. Sayegh, MA., Danielewicz, J., Nannou, T., Miniewicz, M., Jadwiszczak, P., Piekarska, K., Jouhara, H., Trends of European research and development in district heating technologies, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 68 (2017) pp. 1183-1192.
  5. Connolly, D, Lund, H, Mathiesen, BV, Werner, S, Möller, B, Persson, U, Boermans, T, Trier, D, Østergaard, PA, Nielsen, S: Heat Roadmap Europe: Combining district heating with heat savings to decarbonise the EU energy system, Energy Policy, 65 (2014) pp. 475-489.
  6. Lund, H, Duic, N, Østergaard, PA, Mathiesen, BV, Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating, Energy, 2016, 110:1-4.
  7. Rutz, D., Janssen, R., Worm, J., Doczekal, C., Zweiler, R., Puksec, T., Duic, N., Sunko, R., Sunko, B., Gjorgievski, V., Dimov, L., Markovska, N., Bozikaliev, V., Rajakovic, N., Batas Bjelic, I., Kazagic, A., Redzic, E., Tresnjo, D., Jerotic, S., Mladenovic, B., Fejzovic, E., Babic, A., Petrovic, M., Kolbl, M., The role of biomass for small district heating grids for South-Eastern Europe - The CoolHeating project, Proceedings, 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2018.
  8. Rutz, D., Janssen, R., Worm, J., Doczekal, C., Zweiler, R., Puksec, T., Duic, N., Sunko, R., Sunko, B., Gjorgievski, V., Dimov, L., Markovska, N., Bozikaliev, V., Rajakovic, N., Batas Bjelic, I., Kazagic, A., Redzic, E., Tresnjo, D., Jerotic, S., Mladenovic, B., Fejzovic, E., Babic, A., Petrovic, M., Kolbl, M., Small heating grids for communities in Balkan countries: The CoolHeating Project, Proceedings, 5th International Solar District Heating Conference, Graz, Austria; 11 and 12 April 2018.
  9. Rutz, D., Mergner, R., Janssen, R., Soerensen, P.A., Jensen, L.L., Doczekal, C., Zweiler, R., Pukšec, T., Duić, N., Doracic, B., Sunko, R., Sunko, B., Markovska, N., Gjorgievski, V., Bozhikaliev, V., Rajkovic, N., Bjelic, I.B., Kazagic, A., Redzic, E., Smajevic, I., Jerotic, S., Mladenović, B., Fejzovic, E., Babić, A., Petrovic, M., Kolbl, M. (2017b) The Combination of Biomass with Solar Thermal Energy and other Renewables for Small Heating Grids: The Coolheating Project, Proceedings, the 25th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, Stockholm, Sweden; ISBN: 978-88-89407-17-2; DOI: 10.5071/25thEUBCE2017-5BV.2.6, pp. 1896 - 1898.
  10. Rama M., Mohammadi S, Comparison of distributed and centralised integration of solar heat in a district heating system, Energy, Volume 137, 15 October 2017, pp. 649-660.
  11. Winterscheid, C., Dalenback J., Holler, S, Integration of solar thermal systems in existing district heating systems, Energy, 137 (2017) pp. 579-585.
  12. Buoro, D., Pinamonti, P, Reini, M., Optimization of a Distributed Cogeneration System with solar district heating, Applied Energy, Volume 124, July 2014, pp. 298-308.
  13. Soltero, V.M., Chacartegui, R., Ortiz, C., Velázquez, R., Potential of biomass district heating systems in rural areas, Energy, Volume 156, August 2018, pp. 132-143.
  14. Ziemele, J., Cilinskis, E., Blumberga, D., Pathway and restriction in district heating systems development towards 4th generation district heating, Energy, Volume 152, June 2018, pp. 108-118.
  15. Udomsri, S., Bales, C., Martin, A.R., Martin, V., Decentralized cooling in district heating network: System simulation and parametric study, Applied Energy, Volume 92, April 2012, pp. 175-184.
  16. Kveselis, V., Dzenajavičienė, E.F., Masaitis S., Analysis of energy development sustainability: The example of the Lithuanian district heating sector, Energy Policy, Volume 100, January 2017, pp. 227-236.
  17. Dombi, M., Kuti, I., Balogh, P., Sustainability assessment of renewable power and heat generation technologies, Energy Policy, Volume 67, April 2014, pp. 264-271.
  18. Begic, F., Afgan, N., Sustainability Assessment Tool for the Decision Making in Selection of Energy System—Bosnian Case, Energy, Vol. 32, Issue 10, pp. 1979-1985, 2007.
  19. Begic, F., Afgan, N., Kazagic, A., Multi-criteria Sustainability Assessment - A Tool for Evaluation of New Energy System, Thermal Science, Vol. 11, Issue 18, pp. 43-53, 2007.
  20. Mourmouris, J.C., Potolias, C., A multi-criteria methodology for energy planning and developing renewable energy sources at a regional level: A case study Thassos, Greece, Energy Policy, Vol. 52, pp. 522-530, 2013.
  21. Kazagic, A., Merzic, A., Redzic, A., Music, M., Power Utility Generation Portfolio Optimization as Function of Specific RES and Decarbonisation Targets - EPBiH Case Study, Applied Energy, 135 (2014), pp. 694-703.
  22. European Environment Agency, EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook,, 2016.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence