International Scientific Journal


Heating and cooling account for 50% of global energy consumption and 40% of energy related CO2 emissions. Progress towards renewable heating has been slow, and Ireland is expected to miss European Union 2020 emission reduction and renewable energy targets. While increased wind penetration since 2005 has reduced the carbon intensity of Ireland’s electricity by 29%, carbon intensity per used floor area is more than twice the European average, amplifying air pollution, climate change, and energy security issues. The heating and electricity sectors can benefit from the successful transition to cleaner, lower carbon electricity by electrifying heating. Electricity-driven heat pumps deliver 3-4 units of heat per unit of electricity consumed, there by offering a 76% emission reduction compared with fossil-fuelled heating. This research offers an opportunity to minimise both running cost and emissions, assisting the end user and the environment. This is achieved using the smart grid to charge a thermal store during favourable low-cost times and discharge as required later. Smart, information and communication technology-integrated, adaptive control with artificial intelligence optimises the heat pump schedule based on information from forecasting services and/or predictions of heat demand, heat pump source quality, stored heat and day-ahead electricity prices. Another opportunity is the potential to assist the electricity grid by reducing peak electricity demand as smart control favours low electricity prices and low CO2 intensity that coincide with the availability of cheap (wind) electricity. Demand is shifted from expensive peak demand periods, enabling the electrification of heating in a smart energy system.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-03-08
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-03-12
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THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Issue 5, PAGES [2189 - 2202]
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© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence