International Scientific Journal


Low temperature combustion using gasoline-like fuels has the potential to pro-vide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and soot emissions. In this study, different volume percentages (30%~70%) of iso-octane, toluene, and n-butanol are blended with n-heptane separately. These blends with different composition ratios are tested on a modified single-cylinder research engine. Also, simulations are performed using a homogeneous reactor method to know the fuel-chemical effects on particulate matter emissions. Thirdly, a composition ratio of 70% is selected to perform further experiments based on the results from the initial composition ratio experiments with a focus on the particle size distributions. It was found that if the test fuel can provide sufficient ignition delay to allow fuel to premix with air fully, the soot emissions will be low and particle size is small even if the test fuel contains a lot of aromatic compounds.
PAPER REVISED: 2018-04-17
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-04-19
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2018, VOLUME 22, ISSUE Issue 5, PAGES [2065 - 2076]
  1. Colban, W. F., et al., Effect of Intake Pressure on Performance and Emissions in an Automotive Diesel Engine Operating in Low Temperature Combustion Regimes, SAE Technical Paper, 2007-01-4063, 2007
  2. Wang, S., et al., Effect of Air-excess on Blends of RON70 Partially Premixed Combustion, Flow, Turbul. Combust., 96 (2016), 2, pp. 309-326
  3. Wang, S., et al., Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation at Various Loads on Diesel Engine Performance and Exhaust Particle Size Distribution Using Four Blends with a Research Octane Number of 70 and Diesel, Energy Convers. Manag., 149 (2017), Oct., pp. 918-927
  4. McEnally, C. S., et al., Studies of Aromatic Hydrocarbon Formation Mechanisms in Flames: Progress Towards Closing the Fuel Gap, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 32 (2006), 3, pp. 247-294
  5. Yuan, W., et al., Investigation on the Pyrolysis and Oxidation of Toluene over a Wide Range Conditions. I. Flow Reactor Pyrolysis and Jet Stirred Reactor Oxidation, Combust. Flame, 162 (2015), 1, pp. 3-21
  6. Wei, J., et al., A Comparative Study of the Physical Properties of In-cylinder Soot Generated from the Combustion of n-heptane and Toluene/n-heptane in a Diesel Engine, Proc. Combust. Inst., 35 (2015), 2, pp. 1939-1946
  7. Wang, X., et al., Evolution of In-cylinder Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in a Diesel Engine Fueled with n-heptane and n-heptane/toluene, Fuel, 158 (2015), Oct., pp. 322-329
  8. Glassman, I., Soot Formation in Combustion Processes, Symp. Combust., 22 (1989), 1, pp. 295-311
  9. Xiao, Z., et al., The Effect of Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates on Diesel Engine Emissions, J. Automob. Eng., 214 (2010), 3, pp. 307-332
  10. Park, W., et al., The Effect of Oxygenated Fuel Properties on Diesel Spray Combustion and Soot Formation, Combust. Flame, 180 (2017), June, pp. 276-283
  11. Pickett, L. M., Siebers, D. L., Fuel Effects on Soot Processes of Fuel Jets at DI Diesel Conditions, SAE Technical Paper, 2003-01-3080, 2003
  12. Kalghatgi, G. T., Developments in Internal Combustion Engines and Implications for Combustion Science and Future Transport Fuels, Proc. Combust. Inst., 35 (2015), 1, pp. 101-115
  13. Agbro, E., et al., The Influence of n-butanol Blending on the Ignition Delay Times of Gasoline and its Surrogate at High Pressures, Fuel, 187 (2017), Jan., pp. 211-219
  14. Pickett, L. M., Siebers, D. L., Fuel Effects on Soot Processes of Fuel Jets at DI Diesel Conditions, SAE Technical Paper, 2003-01-3080, 2003
  15. Rabl, S., et al., Understanding the Relationship Between Ignition Delay and Burn Duration in a Constant Volume Vessel at Diesel Engine Conditions, Proc. Combust. Inst., 35 (2015), 3, pp. 2967-2974
  16. Kittelson, D., Kraft, M., Particle Formation and Models, Encyclopedia of Automotive Engineering, John Wiley and Sons Inc., Chichester, UK, 2014

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence