International Scientific Journal


One of the main goals for sustainable development of a country is providing sustainable energy resources, which means satisfying the current needs for energy without compromising the future generations. Moreover, sustainable energy resources primarily involve greater inclusion of renewable energy sources. The biomass is the most widely used renewable energy source, mainly because of its relatively low price and its availability. However, in order for the biomass to stay a renewable energy source, it must be used rationally and with a plan, which primarily requires a detailed analysis of the current situation and resources. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to calculate the optimal utilization of biomass in energy purposes, taking into account the sustainable development of a country. As an example, in this paper Macedonia is considered. A detailed analysis of the data sources related to biomass is made and several different indicators that describe the current situation in Macedonia are presented. Furthermore, several scenarios are defined in this paper in order to calculate the optimal share of biomass in the overall energy mix in Macedonia for the next 20 years, using the MARKAL model.
PAPER REVISED: 2016-02-08
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-02-26
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2016, VOLUME 20, ISSUE Supplement 1, PAGES [S77 - S91]
  1. World Energy Statistics, World Energy Consumption & Stats n.d. (accessed January 20, 2015).
  2. IEA Statistics, Renewables Information, International Energy Agency, 2015, Available at:
  4. Mao, G., et al., Past, current and future of biomass energy research : A bibliometric analysis. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52 (2015), pp.1823-1833. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.141.
  5. Chinnici, G., et al., Analysis of biomass availability for energy use in Sicily. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 52 (2015), pp.1025-1030. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.174.
  6. Gaigalis, V., Skema, R., Analysis of fuel and energy transition in Lithuanian households sector and its sustainable development in compliance with the EU policy. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 37 (2014), pp.273-287. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.031.
  7. Weldemichael Y, Assefa G. Assessing the energy production and GHG ( greenhouse gas ) emissions mitigation potential of biomass resources for Alberta. J Clean Prod 112 (2015),5, pp. 4257-4264. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.08.118.
  8. Kumar, A., et al., A review on biomass energy resources , potential, conversion and policy in India. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 45 (2015), pp.530-539. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.007.
  9. Rothe, A., et al.,Current and potential use of forest biomass for energy in Tasmania. Biomass and Bioenergy 80 (2015), pp. 162-72. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.04.021.
  10. Ninic, N., Oka, S., Nikolic, S., Nikolic, M., Micic, J., Energy potential of biomass in Serbia (in Serbian), Yugoslav Society of thermal engineers, (1994)
  11. Oka, S., Jovanovic, Lj., Biomass - renewable energy source (in Serbian), Yugoslav Society of thermal engineers 1 (1997)
  12. Oka, S., Ilic M., Mesarovic, M., Use of biomass in production of heat and electric energy (in Serbian), in monograph SELECTED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS - DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF SERBIAN ECONOMY UP TO 2010., Book II, pp. 493-504, Ed. Ministry of Science and Development, Government of Republic Serbia, Belgrade, (2002), ISBN 86-7282-054-1
  13. Glavonji, B. D., et al., Consumption of Woody Biomass in Industry, Commercial and public facilities in Serbia, Therm Sci, 16 (2012), 1, pp. 7-19. doi:10.2298/TSCI1201007G.
  14. Danon, G., et. al.: Wood biomass for Energy in Montenegro, Therm Sci 14 (2010), 3, pp. 783-798 doi:10.2298/TSCI100217005D.
  15. MANU, Strategy for energy development of the Republic of Macedonia up to 2030, 2010
  16. MANU, Strategy for utilisation of renewable energy sources in the Republic of Macedonia by 2020, 2010
  17. MANU, Strategy for Energy development of the Republic of Macedonia up to 2035, draft version, 2015
  18. Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings, Biomass consumption survey for energy purposes in the Energy Community - Macedonia, Energy Community, 2012, Available at:
  19. Center for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings, Study on the Biomass Consumption for Energy Purposes in the Energy Community, Energy Community, 2012, Available at:
  20. Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Macedonia, First Macedonian Progress Report on the Promotion and Use of Energy from Renewable Sources, 2015, Available at:
  21. State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia, Household consumption in the Republic of Macedonia, 2009-2014, Available at:
  22. State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia, Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2013-2015, Available at:
  23. Nikolov, N., Third National Communication on climate change related to forestry sector, 2013, Available at:
  24. State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia, Energy balance of the Republic of Macedonia, 2009-2013, Available at:
  25. Hansen, M., et al., High-Resolution Global Maps of 21st-Century Forest Cover Change. Science 342 (2015) pp. 850-53. Data available online from:
  26. Hansen, M., et al., Hansen/UMD/Google/USGS/NASA Tree Cover Loss and Gain Area." University of Maryland, Google, USGS, and NASA, 2013. Accessed through Global Forest Watch on 04.02.2016.
  27. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of Republic of Macedonia, GHG Inventory, Available at:
  28. Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of Republic of Macedonia, First Biennial Update Report on Climate Change, Available at:
  29. Уредба за повластени тарифи за електрична енергија, Службен весник на Република Македонија, број 56, 17.04.2013
  30. Energy Regulatory Commission of the Republic of Macedonia,
  31. Lounal, R., et al., Documentation for the MARKAL Family of Models, 2004
  32. Dedinec, A., et al., Low emissions development pathways of the Macedonian energy sector, Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53 (2016), pp. 1202-1011. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.044.
  33. Taseska-Gjorgievska, V., et al., Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development. Therm Sci 18 (2014), pp. 721-30. doi:10.2298/TSCI1403721T
  34. Trendafilov, A., et al., Analyses of private forestry in Macedonia and the role in the National Forest strategy process, CEPF, 2008
  35. Chiani, F., et al.,. Biomass availability in the territory of republic of Macedonia, 2010

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence