International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


A summary is given on the development of fluidized bed conversion (combustion and gasification) of solid fuels. First, gasification is mentioned, following the line of development from the Winkler gasifier to recent designs. The combustors were initially bubbling beds, which were found unsuitable for combustion of coal because of various drawbacks, but they proved more useful for biomass where these drawbacks were absent. Instead, circulating fluidized bed boilers became the most important coal converters, whose design now is quite mature, and presently the increments in size and efficiency are the most important development tasks. The new modifications of these conversion devices are related to CO2 capture. Proposed methods with this purpose, involving fluidized bed, are single-reactor systems like oxy-fuel combustion, and dual-reactor systems, including also indirect biomass gasifiers.
PAPER REVISED: 2015-07-04
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2015-08-24
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2016, VOLUME 20, ISSUE Supplement 1, PAGES [S1 - S18]
  1. Winkler, F., (IG Farbenindustrie AG), Process for production of water gas, Patentschrift Nr 437970 (1922).
  2. Lambertz, J., Ewers, J., Clean coal Power, the answer of the power technology to the challenge from the climate protection, VGB PowerTech, 5 (2006).
  3. Honkola, T., Industrial gasification demonstration plants by Metso, Finnish-Swedish Flame days, Jyväskylä, 2013.
  4. Cemenenko, H.A., Cidelkovski, L.H., Particularities and experiences from the application of fluidized bed furnaces (In Russian), Teploenergetika No 3, (1954), pp. 17-21.
  5. Cemenenko, H.A., Shurygin, A.P., Cidelkovski, L.H., Getting aquainted with furnaces with fluidized bed (In Russian), Izvestia Vyshich Uchebnich Zavedenii Energetika, No 11 (1962), pp. 58-65.
  6. Zhang, X.Y., The progress of FBC boilers in People's republic of China, 6th Int. Conf. on FBC, US DoE, CONF-800428-Vol.1, 1980, pp.36-40.
  7. Gamble, R.L., Operation of the Georgetown University Fluidized Bed Steam Generator, 6th Int. Conf. on FBC, US DoE, CONF-800428-Vol.1, 1980, pp. 307-316.
  8. Ehrlich, S., History of the development of the fluidized-bed boiler, Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on FBC, ERDA, CONF-751213, Washington, pp. 15-20 (1975).
  9. Oka, S.N., Fluidized Bed Combustion, Chapter 5, Marcel Dekker Inc., 2004, ISBN:0-8247-4699-6.
  10. Leckner, B., Optimization of emissions from fluidized bed boilers, Int. J. Energy Res., 6 (1992), pp. 351-363
  11. Broadfield, B., Lipari, P.F., Slone, R.S., Engineering studies of atmospheric FBC electric power plants in the USA, VDI Berichte Nr 322 (1978).
  12. Leckner, B., Atmospheric (non-circulating) fluidized bed combustion, Chapter 14 in (Ed. F. Scala). Fluidized-bed technologies for near-zero emission combustion and gasification, 2013, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., ISBN:0 85709 541 2.
  13. European Commission. Directive 2000/76/EC on the incineration of waste, Official Journal of the European Communities L 332/91, 28.12.2000.
  14. Hoy, H.R., Roberts, A.G., Stantan, J.E., Chapter 1, Introduction, in: Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (Eds: M., Alvarez Cuenca, E.J., Anthony) 1995, ISBN: 978-94-010-4271-0.
  15. Lewis, W.K., Gilliland, E.R., (Standard Oil Dev Co), Conversion of hydrocarbons with suspended catalyst, US Patent 2,498,088, (Patented 1950, original application 1940).
  16. Lewis, W.K., (Standard Oil Dev.Co), Reaction between solids and gases, US Patent 2,343,780, (Patented March, 1944, application August 1941).
  17. The Fluid Bed Reactor, The Office of Communications, American Chemical Society, 1998.
  18. Schytil, F., Calcination of aluminium hydrooxide, Auslegeschrift 1146041 (1960-1963).
  19. Reh, L., The circulating fluid bed reactor—its main features and applications, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 20 (1986), pp. 117-127.
  20. Stahl, G., Becuwe, J., (Rhône Progil), Procedure and apparatus for combustion of household and industrial waste (In French), Patent FR2 209 074 (1972).
  21. Yerushalmi, J., Erlich, S., Maagoul, M., (EPRI), Apparatus and method for combusting carbonaceous fuels employing in tandem a fast bed boiler and a slow boiler, US Patent 4103646 (1978).
  22. Yerushalmi, J., Turner, D.H., Squires, A.M., The fast fluidized bed, Ind. Eng. Chem. Proc. Design Dev., 15 (1976), pp. 47-53.
  23. Reh, L., Fluidized bed processing, Chem. Eng. Progr., 67 (1971), pp. 58-63.
  24. Reh, L., Hirsch M, Plass L, (Metallgesellschaft AG), Method and apparatus for carrying out an exothermic process, US Patent 4111158 (1978).
  25. Reh, L., Hirsch, M., Collin, H., Flink, S.N., (Metallgesellschaft AG), Process for burning carbonaceous materials, US Patent 4165717 (1979).
  26. Kwauk, M., Fluidization, idealized and bubbleless, with applications, Science Press, Beijing, 1992.
  27. Hyppänen, T., Kuivalainen, R., Ollila, H., (Ahlström OY), Centrifugal separator, Patent EP0481438 (A2) (1992).
  28. Makansi, J., Schwieger, R., Fluidized-bed boilers, Power, May 1987, pp. S1-S16.
  29. Oscarsson, B., Sjöberg, K., All the valuable components of the Ranstad shale are to be recovered (In Swedish), Teknisk Tidskrift, 14 (1977), pp. 26-29.
  30. Reh, L., Plass, L., Hirsch, M., Utilization of energy and raw materials content of minerals containing carbon (In German), VDI-Berichte Nr. 322, 1978.
  31. Reh, L., Hirsch, M., Collin P.H., Flink, S.N., Process burning materials containing carbon (In German), German Patent No 25395469 (1975).
  32. Engström, F., Development and commercial operation of a circulating fluidized bed combustion system, 6th Int. Conf. on FBC, Atlanta 1980, US DOE.
  33. Engström, F., Personal communication.
  34. Abdulally, I., Parham, D., Cox, J., Foster Wheeler's answer to meeting the challenge: large scale CFB unit design for the eclectric utility market, The 5th Int. Power Generation Exhibition & Conf., Orlando Fl, 1992.
  35. Squires, A.M., The story of fluid catalytic cracking: the first circulating fluidized bed, in Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology (Ed. P Basu), Pergamon Press, 1986.
  36. Li, Y., Nie, L., Hu. X.K., et al., Structure and performance of a 600 MWe supercritical CFB boiler with water cooled panels, 20th Int. Conf. on FBC, Xian, (Eds. G. Yue, et al.), 2009, pp. 132-136.
  37. Yue, G., The contribution on CFB combustion theory by China, 22nd Int. Conf. on FBC (Eds. D. Bankiewicz, M. Mäkinen, P. Yrjas), Turku 2015, pp. 12-22.
  38. Babcock&Wilcox Power Generation Group, Internal Recirculation Circulating Fluidized-Bed Boilers, Brochure (2006),
  39. Kunii, D., Chemical reaction engineering and research and development of gas solid systems, Chem. Eng. Sci., 35 (1980), pp. 1887-1911.
  40. Leckner, B., Gómez-Barea, A., Oxy-fuel combustion in circulating fluidized bed boilers, Appl. Energy, 125 (2014), pp. 308-318.
  41. Yue, G., Lu, J., Zhang, H., et al., Design theory of circulating fluized bed boilers, 18th Int. Conf. on FBC, Toronto, 2005.
  42. Wu, H., Zhang, M., Sun, Y., et al., Research on the heat transfer model of platen heating surface of 300 MW circulating fluidized bed boilers, Powder Techn., 226 (2012), pp. 83-90.
  43. Lyngfelt, A., Chemical looping combustion, Chapter 20 in (Ed. F. Scala), 2013, Fluidized-bed technologies for near-zero emission combustion and gasification, Woodhead Publishing Ltd. ISBN:0 85709 541 2.
  44. Adánez, J., Abad, A., García-Labiano, F., et al., Progress in Chemical-Looping Combustion and Reforming technologies, Progr. Energy Comb. Sci., 38 (2012), pp. 215-282.
  45. Lyngfelt, A., Leckner, B., Mattisson, T., A fluidized bed combustion process with inherent CO2 separation; application of chemical-looping combustion, Chem. Eng. Sci., 56 (2001), pp. 3101-3113.
  46. Leckner, B., Zero emission coal technologies--a summary, Reunión del Grupo Español del Carbón, 2007, Teruel, Spain.
  47. Mattisson, T., Lyngfelt, A., Leion, H., Chemical-looping with oxygen uncoupling for combustion of solid fuels, Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 3 (2009), pp. 11-9.
  48. Keller, M., Leion, H., Mattisson, T., Mechanisms of solid fuel conversion by chemical looping combustion (CLC) using manganese ore: catalytic gasification by potassium compounds, Energy Technol., 1 (2013), pp. 273-282.
  49. Pröll, T., Hofbauer, H., A dual fluidized bed system for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels, AIChE Annual Meeting 2010, Salt Lake City USA.
  50. Lyngfelt, A., Leckner, B., A 1000 MWth boiler for chemical-looping combustion of solid fuels—discussion of design and costs, Appl. Energy (In press).
  51. Shimizu, T., Hirama, T., Hosoda, H., et al., Twin bed reactor for removal of CO2 from combustion processes, Inst. Chem. Engns., 77 (1999), pp. 62-68.
  52. Blamey, J., Anthony, E.J., Wang, J., Fennell, P.S., The calcium looping cycle for large-scale CO2 capture, Progr. Energy and Combust. Sci., 36 (2010), pp. 260-279.
  53. Anthony, E.J., Ca looping technology: current status, developments and future directions, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, 1 (2011), pp. 36-47.
  54. Sánchez-Biezma, A., Ballesteros, J.C., Diaz, L., et al., Postcombustion CO2 capture with CaO. Status of the technology and next steps towards large scale demonstration, Energy Procedia, 4 (2011), pp. 852-859.
  55. Ströhle, J., Galloy, A., Epple, B., Feasibility study on the carbonate looping process for post-combustion CO2 capture from coal-fired plants, Energy Procedia, 1 (2009), pp. 1313-1320.
  56. Zhao, C., Chen, X., Anthony, E.J., et al., Capturing CO2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired power plants using dry regenerable alkali metal-based sorbent, Progr. Energy Comb. Sci., 39 (2013). pp. 515-534.
  57. Veneman, R., Li, Z.S., Hogendoorn, J.A., et al., Continuous CO2 capture in a circulating fluidized bed using supported amine sorbents, Chem. Eng. J., 207-208 (2012), pp. 18-26.
  58. Hofbauer, H., Aichernig, C., Fluidized bed gasification based on steam: the Güssing example, VDI Berichte, Issue 1891 (2005), pp. 197-211.
  59. Hedenskog, M., Gasification of forest residues in a large demonstration scale -- The GoBiGas-project, International Seminar on Gasification 2014, The Swedish Gas Technology Center, Malmö.

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence