International Scientific Journal


The goal of the European Union is to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% till 2020. This objective is transferred to municipalities through the Covenant of Mayors initiative which was established by the European Commission in 2008. In line with this, this paper presents an integration of Sustainable Energy Action Plans on the Croatian island of Korcula. This was developed through a methodology that uses factors, derived from the statistic, that have an influence on the energy consumption. Energy consumption and the Baseline CO2 emissions inventory for municipalities on Korcula in the public sector, households, tertiary sector and road transport are calculated. Total CO2 emissions for listed sectors in baseline 2012 are 42,923 tCO2, and with recommended actions and measures this can be reduced by approx. 22% till 2020. There are planned joint actions, so all municipalities on the island can cooperate together to maximise their limited financial and human capacities. There has been suggested the establishment of action group for actions implementation which will include representatives from municipalities and other stakeholders. Investments for measures in household sector in joint and individual approach was compared and it was concluded that achieving economy of scale with an integrated approach would accelerate their implementation. The integrated approach enables small neighbouring municipalities to develop one strategy and act together towards achieving goals taken by submitting to the Covenant of Mayors.
PAPER REVISED: 2016-04-04
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2016-04-04
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2016, VOLUME 20, ISSUE Issue 4, PAGES [1037 - 1048]
  1. ***, Covenant of Mayors,
  2. Kona, A., et al., Reducing Greenhouse Gases Emissions through Sustainable Energy Action Plans at Local Level, The Common Platform Proposed by the Covenant of Mayors Initiative and its Potential Impact in the South East European Countries, Proceedings of the 1st South East Europe Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, Ohrid, Macedonia, 2014
  3. Neves, A. R., et al., A Methodology for Sustainable and Inclusive Local Energy Planning, Sustainable Cities and Society, 17 (2015), pp. 110-121
  4. Comodi, G., et al., Local Authorities in the Context of Energy and Climate Policy, Energy Policy, 51 (2012), pp. 737-748
  5. Hasovic, Z., et al., Impact of New Power Investments up to Year 2020 on the Energy System of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 3, pp. 771-780
  6. Pasimeni, M. R., et al., Scales, Strategies and Actions for Effective Energy Planning: A Review, Energy Policy, 65 (2014), pp. 165-174
  7. Marinakis, V., et al., Local Communities Towards a Sustainable Energy Future: Needs and Priorities, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, (2015), pp. 1-17
  8. Amorim, E. V., Sustainable Energy Action Plans: Project Management Intercomparison, Procedia Technology, 16 (2014), pp. 1183-1189
  9. World Resources Institute, C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group, ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability, Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories, 2015
  10. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Hayama, Japan, 2006
  11. Cosmi, C., et al., A Holistic Approach to Sustainable Energy Development at Regional Level: The RENERGY Self-assessment Methodology, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 49 (2015), pp. 693-707
  12. Azevedo, I., et al., Mobilizing Cities Towards a Low-carbon Future: Tambourines, Carrots and Sticks, Energy Policy, 61 (2013), pp. 894-900
  13. Di Leo, S., et al., Energy Systems Modelling to Support Key Strategic Decisions in Energy and Climate Change at Regional Scale, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 42 (2015), pp. 394-414
  14. Swan, L. G., Ugursal, I. V., Modeling of End-use Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector: A Review of Modeling Techniques, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (2009), pp. 1819-1835
  15. Monni, S., Syri, S., Weekly Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Municipalities: Methods and Comparisons, Energy Policy, 39 (2011), pp. 4755-4765
  16. Oliver-Sola, J., et al., Energy and Environmental Evaluation of Municipal Facilities: Case Study in the Province of Barcelona, Energy Policy, 61 (2013), pp. 920-930
  17. Nejadkoorki, F., et al., An Approach for Modelling CO2 Emissions from Road Traffic in Urban Areas, Science Of The Total Environment, 406 (2008), pp. 269-278
  18. Rygg, B. J., Paving the Way for Heat, Local Government Policies for Developing Bioenergy in Norway, International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management, 4 (2014), pp. 57-70
  19. Brandoni, C., Polonara, F., Technical and Economic Aspects of Municipal Energy Planning, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 7 (2012), 2, pp. 221-236
  20. Brandoni, C., Polonara, F., The Role of Municipal Energy Planning in the Regional Energy-planning Process, Energy, 48 (2012), pp. 323-338
  21. Sperling, K., et al., Centralisation and Decentralisation in Strategic Municipal Energy Planning in Denmark, Energy Policy, 39 (2011), pp. 1338-1351
  22. Kyriakarakos, G., et al., A Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Decision Support System for Renewables Local Planning, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39 (2014), pp. 209-222
  23. Pablo-Romero, M. P., Understanding Local CO2 Emissions Reduction Targets, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 48 (2015), pp. 347-355
  24. Fiaschi, D., et al., A Case Study for Energy Issues of Public Buildings and Utilities in a Small Municipality: Investigation of Possible Improvements and Integration with Renewables, Applied Energy, 97 (2012), pp. 101-114
  25. Dall'O, G., et. al., A Multi-Criteria Methodology to Support Public Administration Decision Making Concerning Sustainable Energy Action Plans, Energies, 6 (2013), 8, pp. 4308-4330
  26. Batas-Bjelić, I. R., et al., Integrating the Flexibility of the Average Serbian Consumer as a Virtual Storage Option into the Planning of Energy Systems, Thermal Science, 18 (2014), 3, pp. 743-754
  27. Beccali, M., et al., Improvement of Energy Efficiency and Quality of Street Lighting in South Italy as an Action of Sustainable Energy Action Plans, The Case Study of Comiso, Energy, 92 (2015), pp. 394-408
  28. Stephan, A., Stephan, L., Life Cycle Energy and Cost Analysis of Embodied, Operational and User-transport Energy Reduction Measures for Residential Buildings, Applied Energy, 161 (2016), pp. 445-464
  29. Neves, A. R., Leal, V., Energy Sustainability Indicators for Local Energy Planning: Review of Current Practices and Derivation of a New Framework, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 (2010), pp. 2723-2735
  30. Doukas, H., et al., Assessing Energy Sustainability of Rural Communities using Principal Component Analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16 (2012), 3, pp. 1949-1957
  31. Kılkıs, Ş., Composite Index for Benchmarking Local Energy Systems of Mediterranean Port Cities, Energy, 92 (2015), pp. 1-17
  32. Kılkıs, Ş., Sustainable Development Of Energy, Water And Environment Systems Index For Southeast European Cities, Journal of Cleaner Production, (2015)
  33. ***, Covenant of Mayors Office, Quick Reference Guide: Joint SEAP, Brussels, Belgium, 2014
  34. ***, Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Energy in Croatia 2012 Annual Energy Report, Ministry of Economy, Zagreb, Croatia, 2014
  35. Kolega, V., et al., The Program of Energy Efficiency in Final Energy Consumption of Dubrovnik-Neretva County 2014-2016 (in Croatian language), North-west Croatia REA, Zagreb, Croatia, 2013
  36. Kolega, V., et al., The Plan of Energy Efficiency in Final Energy Consumption of Dubrovnik-Neretva County 2014 (in Croatian language), North-west Croatia REA, Zagreb, Croatia, 2014
  37. ***, Croatian Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund,
  38. ***, Ministry of Economy, National Renewable Energy Action Plan for 2020 (in Croatian language), Zagreb, Croatia, 2013
  39. ***, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, Energy Strategy of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia, 2009
  40. ***, Ministry of Construction and Physical Planning, Programme of Energy Renovation of Family Houses from 2014 to 2020 (in Croatian language), Zagreb, Croatia, 2014
  41. ***, European Commission, How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan − Guidebook, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxemburg, 2010
  42. ***, PV Potential Estimation Utility,
  43. ***, Korcula Island (in Croatian language),
  44. Bačan, A., et al., Dubrovnik-Neretva County-The potential of Renewable Energy Sources (in Croatian language), Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Zagreb, Croatia, 2012
  45. ***, Croatia Bureau of Statistics,
  46. ***, Energy Institute Hrvoje Pozar, Energy in Croatia 2013 Annual Energy Report, Ministry of Economy, Zagreb, Croatia, 2015
  47. Krajačić, G., et al., Sustainable Energy Action Plan of the City Korčula, Korčula, Croatia 2014
  48. Krajačić, G., et al., Sustainable Energy Action Plan of the Mun. of Smokvica, Smokvica, Croatia, 2014
  49. Krajačić, G., et al., Sustainable Energy Action Plan of the Mun. of Blato, Blato, Croatia, 2014
  50. Krajačić, G., et al., Sustainable Energy Action Plan of the Mun. of Vela Luka, Vela Luka, Croatia, 2014
  51. ***, Croatian Rural Development Network,

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence