International Scientific Journal


This research aims to evaluate the Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) and study the influences of population density, building density, and traffic density on the UHII in Chiang Mai city on each season and time. The surrounding air temperature was measured by thermocouples at a constant height of 2 m above the road by mobile surveying approach. The surveyed routes were divided into urban routes and rural routes. The UHII was calculated from the average surrounding air temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas. Experimental investigations were carried out in two seasons, consisting of summer (March-May, 2014) and winter (December 2013-February 2014). Experimental investigations were carried out in two periods, which were a daytime period (01.00-03.00 pm) and a nighttime period (10.00 pm-00.00 am) on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Sundays. The results show that the UHII in summer day, summer night, winter day, and winter night were 1.07°C, 1.27°C, 0.58°C, and 1.34°C, respectively. This implies that the temperature in Chiang Mai city’s urban area is higher than that in the rural area the entire year. Moreover, it was found that the UHII in summer day, winter day, and winter night were primarily affected by the traffic density with the sensitivity percentage of 87.50%, 72.73%, and 63.33%, respectively. In contrast, the UHII in summer night was mainly affected by the building density with the sensitivity percentage of 50.00%.
PAPER REVISED: 2015-03-17
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2015-05-04
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2015, VOLUME 19, ISSUE Supplement 2, PAGES [S445 - S455]
  1. Guo, Y. et al., Effects of Temperature on Mortality in Chiang Mai City, Thailand: A Time Series Study, Environ. Health, 11 (2012), 36, pp. 1-9.
  2. Wiwatanadate, P., Acute Air Pollution-Related Symptoms among Residents in Chiang Mai, Thailand, Nat. Environ. Health Assoc., 76 (2013), 6, pp. 76-84.
  3. National Statistic Office, Census Report of Chiang Mai, Bangkok, Thailand, 2010.
  4. Memon, R.A. et al., A Review on the Generation, Determination and Mitigation of Urban Heat Island, J. Environ. Sci., 20 (2008), 1, pp. 120-128.
  5. Memon, R.A. et al., An Investigation of Urban Heat Island Intensity (UHII) as an Indicator of Urban Heating, Atmos. Res., 94 (2005), 3, pp. 491-500.
  6. Chun, B., Guldmann, J.M., Spatial Statistical Analysis and Simulation of the Urban Heat Island in High-Density Central Cities, Landscape Urban Plan., 125 (2014), pp. 76-88.
  7. Gedzelman, S.D. et al., Mesoscale Aspects of the Urban Heat Island Around New York City, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 75 (2003), 1-2, pp. 29-42.
  8. Hung, T. et al., Assessment with Satellite Data of the Urban Heat Island Effects in Asian Mega Cities, Appl. Earth Obs. Geoinform., 8 (2005), 1, pp. 34-48.
  9. Pongracz, R. et al., Remotely Sensed Thermal Information Applied to Urban Climate Analysis, Adv. Space Res., 37 (2006), 12, pp. 2191-2196.
  10. Stathopoulou, M., Constantinos, C., Daytime Urban Heat Islands from Landsat ETM+ and Corine Land Cover Data: An Application to Major Cities in Greece, Sol. Energ., 81 (2007), 3, pp. 358-368.
  11. Wong, N.H., Yu, C., Study of Green Areas and Urban Heat Island in a Tropical City, Habitat Int., 29 (2005) 3, pp. 547-558.
  12. Saitoh, T.S. et al., Modeling and Simulation of the Tokyo Urban Heat Island, Atmos. Res., 30 (1996), 20, pp. 3431-3442.
  13. Saaroni, H. et al., Spatial Distribution and Microscale Characteristics of the Urban Heat Island in Tel-Aviv, Israel, Landscape Urban Plan., 48 (2014), 1-2, pp. 76-88.
  14. Devadas, M.D., Rose, A.L., Urban Factors and the Intensity of Heat Island in the City of Chennai, Proceedings, 7th Intl. Conf. on Urban Climate, Yokohama, Japan, 2009, pp. 1-4.
  15. Doick, K.J. et al., The Role of One Large Green Space in Mitigating London's Nocturnal Urban Heat Island, Sci. Total Environ., 493 (2014), pp. 662-671.
  16. Lai, L.W., Cheng, W.L., Air Quality Influenced by Urban Heat Island Coupled with Synoptic Weather Patterns, Sci. Total Environ., 407 (2009), 8, pp. 2724-2733.
  17. Mallick, J. et al., Modeling Urban Heat Islands in Heterogeneous Land Surface and its Correlation with Impervious Surface Area by using Night-Time ASTER Satellite Data in Highly Urbanizing City, Delhi-India, Adv. Space Res., 52 (2013), 4, pp. 639-655.
  18. Chiang Mai Provincial Office of Tourism and Sports, Tourism Statistics Report of Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2013.
  19. Williams, C. et al., Chiang Mai Province, in: Thailand Travel Guide, Lonely Planet Publisher, Australia, 2014, pp. 274-335.
  20. Chiang Mai Provincial Office, Brief Report of Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 2013.

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence