International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


In the present study, steam injection method (SIM) is implemented to a hydrogen-enriched diesel engine in order to improve the levels of performance and NO emissions. As hydrogen enrichment method increases effective efficiency, NO emissions could be increased. However, the SIM is used to control NO emissions and improve the engine performance. Due to these positive effects, hydrogen enrichment and the SIM)are applied into a diesel engine by using a two-zone combustion model for30% hydrogen enrichment of the fuel volume and 20% steam ratio of the fuel mass at full load conditions. The results obtained are compared with conventional diesel engine (D), steam injected diesel engine (D+S20), hydrogen-enriched diesel engine (D+H30) and hydrogen-enriched diesel engine with steam injection (D+H30+S20) in terms of performance and NO emissions. In the results, the effective efficiency and effective power improve up to 22.8% and %3.1, as NO emissions decrease up to 22.1%. Hence, the hydrogen enrichment with steam injection method is more environmentally friendly with better performance.
PAPER REVISED: 2015-10-30
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2015-11-19
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2015, VOLUME 19, ISSUE Issue 6, PAGES [1985 - 1994]
  1. Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Kalaiselvan KM. An experimental investigation on hydrogen as a dual fuel for 268 diesel engine system with exhaust gas recirculation technique. Renew Energ 2008; 33:422-7
  2. Das LM. Hydrogen engine: Research and development (R & D). Int J Hydrogen Energy 2002;27:953-65.
  3. Saravanan N and Nagarajan G. An experimental investigation of hydrogen-enriched air induction in a diesel 271 engine system. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008;33:1769-75.
  4. Banerjee R and Bose PK. An experimental investigation on the potential of hydrogen in the reduction of the 273 emission characteristics of an existing four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine operating under EGR. Int J of 274 Green Energy 2012;9: 84-110
  5. Das LM. Near-term Introduction of Hydrogen engines for automotive and agriculture application. Int J 276 Hydrogen Energy 2002;27:479-87.
  6. Barreto L, Makihira A, Riahi K. The hydrogen economy in the 21st century a sustainable development 278 scenario. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2003;28:267-84.
  7. Haragopala Rao B, Shrivastava KN, Bhakta HN. Hydrogen for dual fuel engine operation. Int J Hydrogen 280 Energy 1983;8(5):381-4.
  8. Buckel JW, Chandra S. Hot wire ignition of hydrogen—oxygen mixture. Int J Hydrogen Energy 282 1996;21(1):39-44.
  9. Naber JD and Siebers DL. Hydrogen combustion under diesel engine conditions. Int J Hydrogen Energ 284 1998;23:363-71
  10. Yi HS, Min K, Kim ES. Optimized mixture formation for hydrogen fuelled engines. Int J Hydrogen Energy 286 2000;25:685-90.
  11. Saravanan N, Nagarajan G, Narayanasamy S. An experimental investigation on DI diesel engine with 288 hydrogen fuel. Renew Energ 2008;33: 415-21
  12. Masood M and Ishrat MM. Computer simulation of hydrogen-diesel dual fuel exhaust gas emissions with 290 experimental verification. Fuel 2008; 87:1372-8.
  13. Heffel JW. NOx Emission Reduction in a Hydrogen fuelled Internal Combustion Engine at 3000 rpm using 292 Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2003;28:1285-92.
  14. Selim MYE. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Some Combustion Characteristics of Dual Fuel 294 Engine. Energ Conver Manage 2003; 44:707-21.
  15. Abd-Alla GH, Soliman HA, Badr OA, Abd-Rabbo M.F. Effects of Diluent Admissions and Intake Air 296 Temperature in Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Emissions of an Indirect Injection Dual Fuel Engine. Energ 297 Convers Manage 2001; 42:1033-45.
  16. Samec N, Breda K, Dibble RW. Numerical and Experimental Study of Water/Oil Emulsified Fuel 299 Combustion in a Diesel Engine. Fuel 2002; 81:2035-44.
  17. Bedford F, Rutland C, Dittrich P, Raab A, Wirbelit F. Effects of direct water injection on DI Diesel Engine 301 Combustion. SAE paper 2000-01-2938.
  18. Parlak A, Ayhan V, Üst Y, Şahin B, Cesur İ, Boru B, Kökkülünk G. New method to reduce NOx emissions 303 of diesel engines: electronically controlled steam injection system. J Energy Inst 2012; 85:135-9.
  19. Murthy YVVS, Sastry GYK, Satyanaryana MRS. Experimental Investigation of Performance and 305 Emissions on low Speed Diesel Engine with Dual Injection of Solar Generated Steam and Pongamia Methyl 306 Ester. Indian J Sci Technol 2011; 4:29-33.
  20. Guven Gonca, Bahri Sahin, Yasin Ust, Adnan Parlak, Aykut Safa: Comparison of steam injected diesel engine and Miller cycled diesel engine by using two zone combustion model, Journal of the Energy Institute 88 (2015) 43-52,
  21. Guven Gonca, Bahri Sahin, Adnan Parlak, Yasin Ust, Vezir Ayhan, Idris Cesur, Barıs¸ Boru: The effects of steam injection on the performance and emission parameters of a Miller cycle diesel engine, Energy 78 (2014) 266-275,
  22. Görkem Kökkülünk, Güven Gonca, Vezir Ayhan, Idris Cesur, Adnan Parlak: Theoretical and experimental investigation of diesel engine with steam injection system on performance and emission parameters, Applied Thermal Engineering 54 (2013) 161-170
  23. Guven Gonca: Investigation of the effects of steam injection on performance and NO emissions of a diesel engine running with ethanol-diesel blend, Energy Conversion and Management 77 (2014) 450-457
  24. Gorkem Kokkülünk, Adnan Parlak, Vezir Ayhan, Idris Cesur, Güven Gonca, Barıs¸ Boru: Theoretical and experimental investigation of steam injected diesel engine with EGR, Energy (2014) 331-339.
  25. Gonca G. Investigation of the influences of steam injection on the equilibrium combustion products and 323 thermodynamic properties of bio fuels (biodiesels and alcohols). Fuel 2015:144;244-258.
  26. G. Gonca, B. Sahin, A. Parlak, Y. Ust, V. Ayhan, I. Cesur, et al., Theoretical and experimental investigation 325 of the Miller cycle diesel engine in terms of performance and emission parameters. Appl Energy 138; 2015: 11-326 20.
  27. Ferguson, CR.: Internal Combustion Engines-Applied Thermosciences, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, 328 1986.
  28. J.B. Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 1998.
  29. C. Olikara, G. Borman, A computer program for calculating properties of equilibrium combustion products 331 with some applications to the engines, SAE J. Automot. Eng. 1975;750468.
  30. Gonca G, Sahin B, Ust Y, Parlak A. A Study on Late Intake Valve Closing Miller Cycled Diesel Engine. 333 Arab J Sci Eng 2013;38:383-93.
  31. Kokkulunk G, Gonca G, Parlak A. The Effects of Design Parameters on Performance and NO Emissions of 335 Steam-Injected Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Arab J Sci Eng 2014;39(5):4119-29.
  32. Cesur I, Parlak A, Ayhan A, Gonca G, Boru B. The Effects of Electronic Controlled Steam Injection On 337 Spark Ignition Engine. Appl Therm Eng 2013;55:61-8.
  33. Hiroyasu H. and Kadota T. Models of combustion and formation of nitric oxide and soot in DI diesel 339 engines. SAE 1976:760129.
  34. Park JW, Huh KY, Park KH. Experimental study on the combustion characteristics of emulsified Diesel in a 341 rapid compression and expansion machine. P. I. Mech. Eng. D-J AUT 2000:214;579-86.

© 2023 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence