International Scientific Journal


Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %). The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 %) was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.
PAPER REVISED: 2014-05-08
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2014-06-20
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2015, VOLUME 19, ISSUE Issue 1, PAGES [295 - 304]
  1. Kulkarni, P.S., Crespo, J.G., Afonso, C.A.M., Dioxins sources and current remediation technologies- A review, Environment International, 34 (2008), 1, pp. 139-135
  2. European Environment Agency, Air Quality in Europe - 2012 Report, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2012
  3. Quass, U., Fermann, M., Bröker, G.,The European Dioxin Air Emission Inventory - Final Results. Chemosphere 54 (2004), 9, pp. 1319-1327
  4. Paradiž, B., Niedzialek, J., Dilara, P., Jimenez, J., Umlauf, G., Assessment of the PCDD/Fs Emissions from Coal Fired Residential Heating Appliances by Air Dispersion Modelling. Organohalogen Compounds 67 (2005), pp. 2272-227
  5. Lee, R.G.M., Green, N.J.L., Lohmann, R., Jones, K.C., Seasonal, antropogenic, air mass and meteorological influences on atmosferic concentrations of polychlorineted dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence of the importance of diffuse combustion sources. Environ.Sci. Technol. 33 (1999),pp. 2864-2871
  6. Umlauf, G., Cristoph, E.H., Mariani, G., Eisenreich, S., Paradiž, B., Vives Rubio, I. Seasonality of PCDD/Fs in Ambient Air of Malopolska Region, Southern Poland. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 17 (2010), 2, pp. 462-469
  7. Lavric, E.D., Konnov, A.A., De Ruyck, J., Dioxin levels in wood combustion - a review, Biomass and Bioenergy 26 (2004), 2, 115-145
  8. UNEP Chemicals. Standardized Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases, 2 st edition. (2005)
  9. Moche, W., Thanner, G., PCCD/F Emissions from Coal Combustion in Small Residental Plants, Organohalogen Compounds 36 (1998) pp. 329-332
  10. Geueke, K.-J., Gessner, A., Hiester, E., Quass, U., Broeker G. The DG ENV European Dioxin Emission Inventory- Stage II: Elevated Emissions of Dioxins and Furans from Domestic Single Stove Coal Combustion, Organohalogen Compounds 46 (2000), pp. 272-275
  11. Paradiž, B., Horak, J., Dilara, P., Christoph, E., Santi de, G., Umlauf, G. Integrated approach for assesment of PCDD/F emissions from coal fired stoves combining emission measurment and ambient air levels modelling, Chemosphere 73 (2008), pp. S94-S100
  12. Kubica, K., Paradiž, B., Dilara, P., Small combustion installations: Techniques, emissions and measures for emissions reductions, : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2007. ISBN 978-92-79-08203-0
  13. EN 1948 (2006): Stationary source emissions. Determination of the mass concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs
  14. Stanmore, B. R. The formation of dioxins in combustion systems, Combustion and Flame 136 (2004), pp. 398-427
  15. Samaras, P., Blumenstock, M., Lenoir, D., Schramm, K-W., Kettrup, A. PCDD/F prevention by novel inhibitors: addition of inorganic S- and N- compounds in the fuel before combustion, Environ.Sci: Technol. 34 (2000), pp. 5092-5096
  16. Rigo, H.G., Chandler, A.J. Is there a strong dioxin:chlorine link in commercial scale systems, Chemospehere 37 (1998), pp. 2031-2046
  17. Gullet, B.K., Lemieux, P.M., Lutes, C.C, Winterrowd, C.K., Winters, D.L. PCDD/F emissions from uncontrolled domestic waste burning, Chemosphere 43 (2001), pp. 721-725.
  18. Yudowich, Y.E., Ketris, M.P., Chlorine in coal: A review. International Journal of Coal Geology 67 (2006), pp. 127-144
  19. European Environment Agency, EEA Signals 2013: Improving air quality in Europe, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2013

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence