International Scientific Journal

Authors of this Paper

External Links


Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs) with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b) was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C) and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s). Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g) using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2), sum square error (SSE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.
PAPER REVISED: 2012-02-14
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2012-03-11
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2013, VOLUME 17, ISSUE Issue 3, PAGES [839 - 846]
  1. Prommas, R., Rattanedecho P., Cholaseuk, D., Energy and exergy analysis in drying process of porous media using hot air, International Communication Heat and Mass Transfer, 37 (2010), pp. 372-378
  2. Balbay, A., Şahin, Ö., Karabatak, M., An investigation of drying process of shelled pistachio in a newly designed fixed bed dryer system by using artificial neural network, Drying Technology, 29 (2011), pp. 1685-1696
  3. Akpinar, E.K., Bicer, Y., Yildiz, C., Thin layer drying of red pepper, Journal of Food Engineering, 59 (2003), pp. 99-104
  4. Poor, H., An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985
  5. Chinaruk, T.C., Boonloi, A., Promvonge, P., Drying kinetic of peppercorns in a rectangular fluidizedbed with wavy surfaces, PEA-AIT International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Development, 2010
  6. Mujumdar, A.S., Handbook of Industrial Drying, Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006
  7. Madhiyanon, T., Phila, A., Soponronnarit, S., Models of fluidized bed drying for thin-layer chopped coconut, Applied Thermal Engineering, 29 (2009), pp. 2849-54
  8. Doymaz, I., Convective drying kinetics of strawberry, Chemical Engineering Process, 47 (2008) pp. 914-919
  9. Meziane, S., Drying kinetics of olive pomace in a fluidized bed dryer, Energy Conversion and Manegement, 52 (2011), pp. 1644-1649
  10. Çakmak, G., Yıldız, C., The drying kinetics of seeded grape in solar dryer with PCM-based solar integrated collector, Food and Bioproduct Processing, (2010), Article in press
  11. Midilli, A., Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system, International Journal of Energy Research, 25 (2001), 8, pp. 715-725
  12. Kashaninejad, M., Mortazavi, A., Safekordi, A., Tabil, L.G., Thin-layer drying characteristics and modeling of pistachio nuts, Journal of Food Engineering, 78 (2007), pp. 98-108
  13. Johnson, J.A., Gill, R.F., Valero, K.A., May, S.A., Survival of navel orange-worm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) during pistachio processing, J Econ Entomol., 89 (1996), 1, pp. 97-203
  14. Midilli, A., Kucuk, H., Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying of pistachio by using solar energy, Energy Conversion Management, 44 (2003), pp. 1111-1122
  15. Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008. Available from
  16. Doymaz, I., Pala, M., The effect of dipping pre-treatment on air drying rates of seedless grape, Journal of Food Engineering, (2002), 52, pp. 413-427.
  17. Toğrul, I.T., Pehlivan, D., Modelling of drying kinetics of single apricot, Journal of Food Engineering, 58 (2003), pp. 23-32.
  18. Hii, C. L., Law, C. L., Cloke, M., Modeling using a new thin layer drying model and product quality of cocoa, Journal Food Engineering, 90 (2009), pp. 191-198
  19. Akpinar, E.K., Bicer, Y., Mathematical modeling of thin layer drying process of long green pepper in solar dryer and under open sun, Energy Conversion Management, 49 (2008), pp. 1367-75
  20. Crank, J., The Mathematics of diffusion, 2nd ed. Oxford (UK): Claren don Press, 1975
  21. Tutuncu, A.M., Labuza, T.P., Effect of geometry on the effective moisture transfer diffusion coefficient, Journal of Food Engineering 30 (1996), pp. 433-447
  22. Page, G. E., Factors influencing the maximum rates of air drying shelled corn in thin layers, M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Prude University, Prude, USA, 1949
  23. Henderson, S.M., Pabis, S., Grain drying theory. II. Temperature effects on drying coefficients, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 6 (1961), pp. 169-174.
  24. Yagcioglu, A., Degirmencioglu, A., Cagatay, F., Drying characteristic of laurel leaves under different conditions, In: A. Bascetincelik (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th international congress on agricultural mechanization and energy. Adana, Turkey: Faculty of Agriculture, Cukurova University, 1999, pp. 565-569
  25. Henderson, S.M., Progress in developing the thin layer drying equation, Transactions of the ASAE, 17 (1974), pp. 1167-1172
  26. Wang, C.Y., Singh, R.P., A single layer drying equation for rough rice, ASAE, 1978: 3001

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence