International Scientific Journal


To investigate the effect of water spray and crosswind on the effectiveness of the natural draft dry cooling tower (NDDCT), a three-dimensional model has been developed. Efficiency of NDDCT is improved by water spray system at the cooling tower entrance for high ambient temperature condition with and without crosswind. The natural and forced heat convection flow inside and around the NDDCT is simulated numerically by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in both air and water droplet phases. Comparison of the numerical results with one-dimensional analytical model and the experimental data illustrates a well-predicted heat transfer rate in the cooling tower. Applying water spray system on the cooling tower radiators enhances the cooling tower efficiency at both no wind and windy conditions. For all values of water spraying rate, NDDCTs operate most effectively at the crosswind velocity of 3m/s and as the wind speed continues to rise to more than 3 m/s up to 12 m/s, the tower efficiency will decrease by approximately 18%, based on no-wind condition. The heat transfer rate of radiator at wind velocity 10 m/s is 11.5% lower than that of the no wind condition. This value is 7.5% for water spray rate of 50kg/s.
PAPER REVISED: 2011-11-12
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2011-11-12
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2013, VOLUME 17, ISSUE Issue 2, PAGES [443 - 455]
  1. du Preez, A. F., Kroger, D. G., Effect of Wind on Performance of a Dry-Cooling Tower, Heat Recover System and CHP, 13 (1993), 2, pp. 139-146
  2. du Preez, A. F., Kroger, D. G., The Effect of the Heat Exchanger Arrangement and Wind-Break Walls on the Performance of Natural Draft Dry-Cooling Towers Subjected to Crosswinds, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 58 (1995), 3, pp. 293-303
  3. Demuren, O., Rodi, W., Three-Dimensional Numerical Calculations of Flow and Plume Spreading Past Cooling Towers, Journal of Heat Transfer, 109 (1987), 1, pp. 113-119
  4. Bergstrom, D. J., Derksen, D., Rezkallah, K. S., Numerical Study of Wind Flow over a Cooling Tower, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 46 (1993) pp. 657-664
  5. Kapas, N., Investigation of Flow Characteristics of Heller-type Cooling Towers with Different Cooling Delta Angels, Periodica Polytechnica ser. Mechanical Engineering, 47 (2003) pp. 143-150
  6. Kapas, N., Behavior of Natural Draught Cooling Towers in Wind, CMFF'03, Budapest, Hungary, 2003
  7. Al-Waked, R., Behnia, M., The Performance of Natural Draft Dry Cooling Towers under Crosswind: CFD Study, International Journal of Energy Research, 28 (2004), pp. 147-161
  8. Wei, Q., et al., A Study of the Unfavorable Effects of Wind on the Cooling Efficiency of Dry Cooling Towers, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 54 (1995), pp. 633-643
  9. Su, M. D., Tang, G. F., and Fu, S., Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow and Thermal Performance of a Dry-Cooling Tower under Cross Wind Condition, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 79 (1999), 3, pp. 289-306
  10. Kaiser, A .S., et al., Numerical Model of Evaporative Cooling Processes in a New Type of Cooling tower, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 48 (2005), pp. 986-999
  11. Javani, M., Ahmadikia, H., Investigation of Natural Draft Dry Cooling Towers Performance under Cross Wind Effect, 11thAsian Congress of Fluid Mechanic, Malaysia, 2006
  12. Zhai, Z., Fu, S., Improving Cooling Efficiency of Dry-Cooling Towers under Crosswind Conditions by using Wind-Break Methods, Applied Thermal Engineering, 26 (2006), 10, pp. 1008-1017
  13. Mokhtarzadeh-Dehghan, M. R., Konig, C. S., Robins A. G., Numerical Study of Single and Two Interacting Turbulent Plumes in Atmospheric Cross Flow, Atmospheric Environment, 40 (2006) pp. 3909-3923
  14. S. Lakovic, M., et al., Impact of the Cold End Operating Condition on Energy Efficiency of the Steam Power Plants, Thermal Science, 14(2010), pp. S53-S66
  15. Morsi, S. A., Alexander, A. J., An Investigation of Particle Trajectories in Two-Phase Flow Systems, Journal Fluid Mechanics, 55 (1972), pp. 193-208
  16. Williamson, N. J., Numerical Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer and Optimization of a Natural Draft Wet Cooling Tower, Ph.D. thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia, 2008
  17. Williamson, N. , Behnia, M., Armfield, S., Comparison of a 2D Axisymmetric CFD Model of a Natural Draft Wet Cooling Tower and a 1D Model, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51 (2008), pp. 2227-2236
  18. Jaber, H., Webb, R. L., Design of Cooling Towers by the Effectiveness-NTU Method, Journal of Heat Transfer, 111 (1989), pp. 837-843
  19. Cooling Tower Documents, Isfahan (Shahid Mohammad Montazeri) Thermal Power Plant, 1992
  20. Ahmadikia, H., Iravani, G. A., Numerical Simulation and Analytical Solution of Natural Draft Cooling Tower, Isteghlal Journal, IUT, 26 (2007), pp. 183-195
  21. Hawlader, M. N. A., Liu, B. M., Numerical Study of Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Evaporative Natural Draft Cooling Towers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 22 (2002), pp. 41-59

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence