International Scientific Journal


This review paper considers possible instrumentation for diesel engine fine particles exhaust emission evaluation. The modern diesel engines have extremely low particles emission almost at the level of measurement error of existing gravimetric measurement method. Since coarse particles are eliminated by new engine technologies, fine particles, with very negative effects on human health, dominate in the emission of current diesel engine. Therefore, it is necessary not only to measure mass of emitted particles but also to investigate other important particle characteristics as: particles number, particle size, particle number and mass distribution, particle active surface, particle composition etc. Therefore, existing measurement technologies used in aerosol science can be used also to study diesel engine particles properties. This most common instrumentation in aerosol technique is shortly reviewed in the paper with special attention on candidate instruments included in EU program on portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS).
PAPER REVISED: 2011-08-29
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2011-08-31
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
THERMAL SCIENCE YEAR 2011, VOLUME 15, ISSUE Issue 4, PAGES [915 - 938]
  1. Michal Krzyzanowski, Birgit Kuna-Dibbert, Jürgen Schneide, Health Effects of Transport-related Air Pollution, WHO Regional Office for Europe , ISBN 92-890-1373-7, WHO, 2005.
  2. Sydbon A., Blomberg A., Parnia S., Stenfors N. Sandstrom T., Dahlen S-E, Health effects of diesel exhaust emissions, European Respiratory journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 733-746, 2001.
  3. Linda D. Dorie, Susan T. Bagley, David G. Leddy, John H. Johnson, Characterization of mutagenic subtractions of diesel exhaust modified by ceramic particulate traps, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 757-765,1987.
  4. ***, Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Vehicles (PARTICULATES), European Commission - DG TrEn, 5th Framework Programme, Contract No. 2000-RD.11091, Driverable 2, 2001.
  5. Velimir S. Petrović, Particulate matters from diesel engine exhaust emission, Thermal Science, Vol. 12 (2008), No. 2, pp. 183-198,2008.
  6. Kittelson D. B., Engines and nanoparticles: a review; Journal of Aerosol Science, Vol. 29, No.5/6, pp. 575-588. 1998.
  7. Heywood J., Internal Combustion Engines Fundamental, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1989.
  8. Elias Vouitis, Leonidas Nitziachrios, Zizis Samaras, Theoretical Investigation of the Nucleation Mode Formation Downstream of Diesel After-treatment Devices, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, Vol.8., No.1. pp 37-53, 2008.
  9. Burtscher H., Physical characterization of particulate emission from diesel engines: a review, Aerosol Science, Vol. 36, pp. 896-932.
  10. Petrović, V., An Approach on the Investigation of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission (in Serbian), M. Sc. thesis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, 2006
  11. ***, Programme on Fine Particulate Emissions from Passenger Cars, ACEA, part I-II, 2003.
  12. Giechaskiel B., Carriero M., Martini G., Krasenbrink A., Scheder D., Calibration and Validation of Various Commercial Particle Number Measurement Systems, SAE Technical Paper Number: 2009-01-1115, 2009.
  13. Anderson, J., et al., Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), Light-Duty Inter-Laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE_LD), Final Report, Informal Document No. GRPE-PMP-18-2, 2007
  14. ***, Compilation of Existing Particle Number Data from out side PMP Inter-Laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE), GRPE-55-16, 2008
  15. ***, Dekati Ejector Diluter in Exhaust Measurements v2.1, Dekati Technical Notes, 2007.
  16. Ville Niemelä, Erkki Lamminen, Ari Laitinen, A Novel Method for Particle Sampling and Size-Classified Electrical Charge Measurement at Power Plant Environment, 11th International Conference on Electrostatic Precipitation, Hangzhou, 2008.
  17. ***, Dekati Fine Particle Sampler, User Manual, ver. 5.8, Dekati Ltd, 2006;
  18. ***, DEED Dekati Engine Exhaust Diluter, Dekati Ltd., 2010;
  19. ***, Raw Gas Diluter MD19-E3, Matter Engineering AG, 2005;
  20. ***, Rotating Disk Thermodiluters and Thermal Conditioners, TSI Inc.;
  21. Pierre Madl, Instrumental Development and Application of a Thermodenuder, Final report, Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg, 2003.
  22. ***, Model 3065 Low-Flow Thermodenuder, TSI Incorporated, 2002;
  23. ***, Dekati Thermodenuder, Dekati Ltd.,
  24. ***, Model 3775 Condensation Particle Counter, Instruction manual, TSI Incorporated, P/N 2980295, 2005;
  25. ***, Engine Exhaust Condensation Particle Counter, Model 3790, TSI Incorporated, P/N 5001116, 2007;
  26. ***, PMP - Automotive Condensation Particle Counter (CPC), Model 5.430, GRIMM Aerosol Technik GmbH, D_E_PNP_CPC_Rev8, 2009;
  27. ***, Model 3782 Water-based Condensation Particle Counter, TSI Incorporated, P/N 1980527, Rev. D, 2007;
  28. Jon Andersson, Athanasios Mamakos, Barouch Giechaskiel, Massimo Carriero, Giorgio Martini, Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) Heavy-duty Inter-laboratory Correlation Exercise (ILCE_HD), Final Report, JRC Scientific and Technical reports, EUR 24561 EN, 2010.
  29. ***, Dekati DGI-1570 Gravimetric Impactor, Dekati Ltd., 2010;
  30. Philip Demokritou, SeungJoo Lee, Stephen T. Ferguson, Petros Koutrakis, A Compact Multistage (cascade) Impactor for the Characterization of Atmospheric‘ Aerosols, Jourmal of Aerosol Science 35 (2004), pp. 281-299.
  31. M. Matti Maricq, Ning Xu, Richard E. Chase, Measuring Particulate Mass Emissions with the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Aerosol Science and Technology, 40, pp. 85-96, 2006.
  32. ***, Dekati ELPI Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Dekati Ltd., 2010;
  33. ***, Dekati ELPI+ Electrical Low Pressure Impactor, Dekati Ltd., 2010;
  34. Panich Intra, Nakorn Tippayawong, An overview of differential mobility analyzers for size classification of nanometer-sized aerosol particles, Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 30 (2), pp. 243-256, 2008.
  35. ***, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Model 3936 SMPS, TSI Incorporated, P/N 1933796 Rev. H, 2003,
  36. George Biskos, Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Differential Mobility Spectrometer, PhD dissertation, Queens' College, University of Cambridge, 2004.
  37. ***, Aerosol Science, Particle Measuring Systems, 092810, 2010,
  38. Panich Intra, Nakorn Tippayawong, An Electrical Mobility Spectrometer for Aerosol Size Distribution Measurement, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. 25-26 January 2006
  39. ***, Model 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM Spectrometer, TSI Incorporated, P/N 2960244 Rev. A, 2005,
  40. Leonidas Ntziachristos, Andrea Polidori, Harish Phuleria, Michael D. Geller, Constantinos Sioutas, Application of a Diffusion Charger for the Measurement of Particle Surface Concentration in Different Environments, Aerosol Science and Technology, Vol.41, pp. 571-580, 2007
  41. Jianming Wei, Development of a method for measuring surface area concentration of ultrafine particles, Dissertation, Universitaet Duisburg - Essen, 2007.
  42. ***, Model 3070A Electrical Aerosol Detector, TSI Incorporated, P/N 1930061 Rev.B, 2004,
  43. L. Rubino, P. Bonnel, M. Carriero, and A. Krasenbrink, Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) For Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicle PM Measurement: The European PM PEMS Program, SAE Int. Journal of Engines, March 2010, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.660-673.
  44. Bonnel P., Carriero M., Forni F., Alessandrini S., Montigny F., Demircioglu H., Giechaskiel B., EU-PEMS PM Evaluation Program - First Report, JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, EUR 24543 EN - 2010.
  45. Imad Khalek, PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Determination, Final Report, Southwest Research Institute, SwRi Project 03.14936.12, US Environmental Protection Agency, EPA-420-R-10-902, 2010.
  46. Daniel Pope, Particle Matter Measurements for Inspection/Maintenance Programs, MSc thesis, University of Denver, 2009
  47. ***, AVL Micro Soot Sensor, Transient High Sensitive Soot Measurement, AVL List GmbH, 2010,
  48. ***, Micro Soot Sensor, Continuous Measurement of Soot Concentration, Emissions Test Instruments, AVL Product Description, AVL List GmbH, ITS-PD, 2008,
  49. Wolfgang Schindler, Christoph Haisch, Harald A. Beck, Reinhard Niessner, Eberhard Jacob, Dieter Rothe, A Photoacoustic Sensor System for Time Resolved Quantification of Diesel Soot Emissions, Sae Technical Paper 2004-01-0968, SAE Int. 2004.
  50. ***, MICRO-PSS Portable Particulate Sampling System, CONTROL SISTEM S.r.l.,
  51. ***, MICRO-PSS Particulate Sampling System for On-road Tests, CONTROL SISTEM S.r.l.,
  52. Hill L., On Board PM Mass Measurement for US and EU In Use Compliance, 2008 Cambridge Particle Meeting, Cambridge University, 16th May 2008.
  53. ***, SEMTECH®-PPMD Portable Particulate Measurement Device, Sensors Inc, R 05/09,
  54. ***, SENTECH-PPMD, PEMS PM Evaluation Programme Meeting, Brussels. 13 March 2008.
  55. ***, Dekati® DMM Mass Monitor, Dekati Ltd.,
  56. Mamakos Athanasios, Ntziachristos Leonidas, Samaras Zissis, Evaluation of the Dekati mass monitor for the measurement of exhaust particle mass emissions, Environmental Science & Technology, 2006, vol. 40, no15, pp. 4739-4745.
  57. ***, Deakati ETaPS Electrical Tailpipe PM Sensor, Dekati Ltd.,
  58. Juha Tikkanen, Ville Niemelä, Kauko Janka, Antti Rostedt, Jorma Keskinen, Mark Davis, Zissis Samaras, In-Situ PM Emission Measurements from Tailpipe Using a PM Sensor, Testing Expo 8.-10.5.2007, Stuttgart.
  59. ***, Pegasor Particle Sensor, Pegasor Ltd., 2010,
  60. Leonidas Ntziachristos, Juha Tikkanen, Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) Potential solution for On-Board Diagnosis of Particle Filter Operation - First Results and Development Potential, American Filtration & Separations Society, 2009 Topical Conference, Emission Solutions in Transportation; October 5-8, 2009, Ann Arbor.
  61. Juha Tikkanen, Timo Lanki, Matti Lehtimaki, Kauko Janka, An Electrical Sensor for Long Term Monitoring of Ultrafine Particles in Workspaces, Pegasor Oy,
  62. Juha Tikkanen, Pegasor Particle Sensor - PPS-M New Tool for Industrial PM Measurement, Pegasor Ltd., 2024-11-2010.
  63. Leonidas Ntziachristos, Pavlos Fragkiadoulakis, Zissis Samaras, Kauko Janka, Juha Tikkanen, Exhaust Particle Sensor for OBD Application, SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0626, SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition, 2011.

© 2022 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence