International Scientific Journal


Nanofluids exhibits larger thermal conductivity due to the presence of suspended nanosized solid particles in them such as Al2O3, Cu, CuO,TiO2, etc. Varieties of models have been proposed by several authors to explain the heat transfer enhancement of fluids such as water, ethylene glycol, engine oil containing these particles. This paper presents a systematic literature survey to exploit the thermophysical characteristics of nanofluids. Based on the experimental data available in the literature empirical correlation to predict the thermal conductivity of Al2O3, Cu, CuO, and TiO2 nanoparticles with water and ethylene glycol as base fluid is developed and presented. Similarly the correlations to predict the Nusselt number under laminar and turbulent flow conditions is also developed and presented. These correlations are useful to predict the heat transfer ability of nanofluids and takes care of variations in volume fraction, nanoparticle size and fluid temperature. The improved thermophysical characteristics of a nanofluid make it excellently suitable for future heat exchange applications. .
PAPER REVISED: 2007-07-11
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2007-09-21
CITATION EXPORT: view in browser or download as text file
  1. Choi, S. U. S., Development and Applications of Non-Newtonian Flows, Vol. 66 (Ed. D. A. Singiner & H. P. Wang), ASME, 1995, pp. 99-105
  2. Wang, Q. X., Mujumdar, S. A., Heat Transfer Characteristics of Nanofluids: a Review, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 46 (2007), 1, pp. 1-19
  3. Wang, X., Xu, X., Choi, S. U. S., Thermal Conductivity of Nanoparticles Fluid Mixture, Journal of ThermoPhysic Heat Transfer, 13 (1999), 4, pp. 474-80
  4. Eastman, J. A., et al., Anomalously Increased Effective Thermal Conductivities of Ethylene Glycol Based Nanofluids Containing Copper Nanoparticles, Applied Physic Letters, 78 (2001), 6, pp. 718-720
  5. Das, S. K., et al., Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 125 (2003), 4, pp. 567-574
  6. Kim, H. S., Choi, R. S., Kim, D., Thermal Conductivity of Metal-Oxide Nanofluids: Particle Size Dependence and Effect of Laser Irradiation, Journal of Heat Transfer, 129 (2007), 4, pp. 298-307
  7. Xuan, Y., Li, Q., Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Features of Nanofluids, Journal of Heat Transfer, 125 (2003), 1, pp. 151-153
  8. Pak, B. C., Cho,Y. I., Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particle, Experimental Heat Transfer, 11 (1998), 2, pp. 151-170
  9. Wen, D., Ding, Y., Experimental Investigation Into Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids at the Entrance Region under Laminar Flow Conditions, International Journal Heat and Mass Transfer, 47 (2004), 24, pp. 5181-5188
  10. Heris, W. S., Esfahany, N. M., Etemad, Gh. S., Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Circular Tube, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 28 (2007), 2, pp. 203-210
  11. Buongiorno, J., Convective Transport in Nanofluids, Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 128 (2006), 3, pp. 240-250
  12. Das, S. K., Putra, N., Roetzel, W., Pooling Boiling Characteristics of Nanofluids, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 46 (2003), 5, pp. 851-862
  13. Chen, H., Ding, Y., He, Y., Tan, C., Rheological Behaviour of Ethylene Glycol Based Titania Nanofluids, Chemical Physics Letters, 444 (2007), 4, pp. 333-337
  14. Kukarni, P. D., Das, K. D., Chukwu, A. G., Temperature Dependent Rheological Property of Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Suspension (Nanofluid), Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 6 (2006), 4, pp. 1150-1154
  15. Hamilton, R. L., Crosser, O. K., Thermal Conductivity of Heterogeneous Two Component Systems, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 1 (1962), 3, pp. 187-191
  16. Bruggeman, D. A. G., Calculation of Various Physical Constants of Heterogenous Substances, II Dielectricity Constants and Conductivity of non Regular Multi Crystal Systems (in German), Annalen der Physik, Leipzig, Germany, 430 (1935), pp. 285-313
  17. Spanier, E. J., Herman, P. I., Use of Hydrid Phenomenological and Statistical Effective-Medium Theories of Dielectric Functions to Model the Infrared Reflectance of Porous SIC Films, Physical Review, 61 (2000), 15, pp. 10437-10450
  18. Jeffrey, D. J., Conduction through a Random Suspension of Spheres, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 335, 1973, pp. 355-367
  19. Davis, R. H., Effective Thermal Conductivity of a Composites Material with Spherical Inclusions, International Journal of Thermophysics, 7 (1986), 3, pp. 609-620
  20. Jang, S. P., Choi, S. U. S., Role of Brownian Motion in the Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluid, Applied Physic Letters, 84 (2004), 24, pp. 4316-4318
  21. Maiga, S. B., et al., Heat Transfer Enhancement in Turbulent Tube Flow Using Al2O3 Nanoparticle Suspension, International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat and Fluid Flow, 16 (2006), 3, pp. 275-292

© 2024 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. Published by the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International licence