THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Optimal airfoil design and wing analysis for solar-powered high-altitude platform station

ABSTRACT
The ability of flying continuously over prolonged periods of time has become target of numerous research studies performed in recent years in both the fields of civil aviation and unmanned drones. High-altitude platform stations are aircrafts that can operate for an extended period of time at altitudes 17 km above sea level and higher. The aim of this paper is to design and optimize a wing for such platforms and computationally investigate its aerodynamic performance. For that purpose, two-objective genetic algorithm, class shape transformation and panel method were combined and used to define different airfoils with the highest lift-to-drag ratio and maximal lift coefficient. Once the most suitable airfoil was chosen, polyhedral half-wing was modeled and its aerodynamic performances were estimated using the computational fluid dynamics approach. Flow simulations of transitional flow at various angles-of-attack were realized in ANSYS FLUENT and various quantitative and qualitative results are presented, such as aerodynamic coefficient curves and flow visualizations. In the end, daily mission of the aircraft is simulated and its energy requirement is estimated. In order to be able to cruise above Serbia in July, an aircraft weighing 150 kg must accumulate 17 kWh of solar energy per day.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2021-04-19
PAPER REVISED: 2021-06-27
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2021-07-16
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2021-07-31
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI210419241S
REFERENCES
  1. D'Oliveira, F. A., De Melo, F. C. L., et al., High-Altitude Platforms − Present Situation and Technology Trends, Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 8 (2016), 3, pp. 249-262
  2. Noth, A., Design of Solar Powered Airplanes for Continuous Flight, Ph. D. thesis, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2008
  3. Alsahlani, A. A. M., Design of a Swept-Wing High-Altitude Long-Endurance Unmanned Air Vehicle (HALE UAV), Ph. D. thesis, University of Salford, Manchester, UK, 2017
  4. Colas, D. F., Roberts, N. H., et al., HALE Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Part I: Solar-Powered Single and Multiple-Boom Aircraft, Proceedings, 18th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Atlanta, Ga., USA, 2018, Article number AIAA 2018-3028, 30p
  5. Colas, D. F., Roberts, N. H., et al., HALE Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Part II: Solar-Powered Single and Multiple-Boom Aircraft, Proceedings, 18th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference, Atlanta, Ga., USA, 2018, Article number AIAA 2018-3029, 11p
  6. Gibbs, Y., NASA Armstrong Fact Sheet: Helios Prototype, NASA, Edwards, Calif., USA, 2015
  7. ***, BAE Systems, www.baesystems.com/en/product/phasa-35
  8. Goraj, Z., Spalding, D., Design challenges associated with development of a new generation UAV, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 77 (2005), 5, pp. 361-368
  9. Park, K., Han, J. W., et al., Optimal design of airfoil with high aspect ratio in unmanned aerial vehicles, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 40 (2009), April, pp. 182-188
  10. Allen Gardner, B., Selig, M. S., Airfoil design using a genetic algorithm and an inverse method, Proceedings, 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nev., USA, 2003, Article number AIAA 203-0043, 12p
  11. Leloudas, S. N., Strofylas, G. A., et al., Airfoil optimization using area-preserving free-form deformation, Proceedings, ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Houston, Tex., USA, 2015, Vol. 1, 10p
  12. Mukesh, R., Lingadurai, K., et al., Airfoil shape optimization using non-traditional optimization technique and its validation, Journal of King Saud University − Engineering Sciences, 26 (2014), 2, pp. 191-197
  13. Viola, I. M., Chapin, V., et al., Optimal airfoil's shapes by high fidelity CFD, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 90 (2018), 6, pp. 1000-1011
  14. Qiu, L., Wang, R., et al., Airfoil profile optimization of an air suction equipment with an air duct, Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 4, pp. 1217-1222
  15. Natarajan, K., Thomas, S., et al., Numerical investigation of airfoils for small wind turbine applications, Thermal Science, 20 (2016), Suppl. 4, pp. S1091-S1098
  16. Ivanov, T. D., Simonović, A. M., et al., Influence of selected turbulence model on the optimization of a class-shape transformation parameterized airfoil, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), Suppl. 3, pp. S737-S744
  17. Peigin, S., Pushchin, N., et al., Unmanned air vehicle 3-D wing aerodynamical design and algorithm stability with respect to initial shape, Thermal Science, 23 (2019), Suppl. 2, pp. S599-S605
  18. Drela, M., XFOIL Formulation, Formulation of computer program XFOIL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., USA, 2008
  19. Langtry, R. B., Menter, F. R., Transition modeling for general CFD applications in aeronautics, Proceedings, 43rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit - Meeting Papers, Reno, Nev., USA, 2005, pp. 15513-15526
  20. Kulfan, B. M., Bussoletti, J. E., "Fundamental" parametric geometry representations for aircraft component shapes, Proceedings, 11th AIAA/ISSMO Multidisciplinary Analysis and Optimization Conference, Portsmouth, Va., USA, 2006, Vol. 1, pp. 547-591
  21. Beasley, D., Bull, D. R., et al., An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Part 1, Fundamentals, University Computing, 15 (1993), 2, pp. 58-69
  22. Beasley, D., Bull, D. R., et al., An Overview of Genetic Algorithms: Part 2, Research Topics, University Computing, 15 (1993), 4, pp. 170-181
  23. Selig, M., McGranahan, B., Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines, NREL/SR-500-34515, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colo., USA, 2004
  24. ***, ANSYS Fluent Theory Guide, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, Pa., USA, 2017
  25. Hasan, M. S., Svorcan, J., Tanovic, D., Baş, G., Durakbasa, N. M., Conceptual Design and Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis of a Solar Powered High-Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) UAV Wing Model, Proceedings (Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering), International Symposium for Production Research ISPR 2020, Antalya, Turkey, 2020, pp. 93-105
  26. Svorcan, J., Hasan, M. S., et al., Optimal Propeller Design for Future HALE UAV, Scientific Technical Review, 69 (2019), 2, pp. 25-31
  27. ***, Global Solar Atlas, globalsolaratlas.info/map
  28. Zubi, G., Dufo-Lopez, R., et al., The lithium-ion battery: State of the art and future perspectives, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 89 (2018), June, pp. 292-308