International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Butler-Volmer current equation and fractal nature correction in electrochemical energy

The Global Energy Crisis necessitated improving research into new, renewable and alternative energy sources. Due to that, our focus is on the area of some phenomena and applications where different synthetic methods and microstructure property optimization achieved significant improvement in the electro physical properties of output materials and components. This is especially important for higher energy efficiency and electricity production (batteries and battery systems, fuel cells, and hydrogen energy).The improvement of energy storage tank capacity is one of the most important development issues in the energy sphere too. It's because of this very promising research and application area that we are expanding the knowledge on these phenomena through fractal nature analysis. So, the results obtained in the field of electrochemical energy sources, especially in electrolyte development, are taken into account the analysis of fractal nature optimization. Based on the research field of fractal material science, particularly electronic materials, we conducted research in microstructure fractal influence in the area of electrochemistry. We investigated the consolidation parameters of Fe2O3 redox processes. The influence of activation energy, fundamental thermodynamic parameters, and also the fractal correction of electrode surface area through complex fractal dimension with recognized grains and pores, and the Brownian motion of particles is introduced. Finally, the electrochemical Butler-Volmer equation fractalization is obtained. These results practically open new frontiers in electrochemical energy processes performed through the Arrhenius equation within electrolyte bulk and electrode relations and more complete and precise energy generation.
PAPER REVISED: 2020-07-12
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-08-14
  1. Van de Voorde, M., Innovations in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Nano-Sized Materials Application, De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 2018.
  2. Raj, B., Van de Voorde, M., Mahajan Y., Nanotechnology for Energy Sustainability, Wiley-VCH, 2017.
  3. Sutherland, J. W., Dornfeld, D.A., Linke, B. S., Energy Efficient Manufacturing: Theory and Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Scrivener Publishing, Beverly, MA, USA, 2018.
  4. Mitic, V.V., Kocic, Lj., Paunovic, V., Bastic, F., Sirmic, D., The Fractal Nature Materials Microstructure Influence on Electrochemical Energy Sources, Science of Sintering, 47 (2015), pp. 195-204
  5. Kreysa, G., Ota, K. , Savinell, R. F., Encyclopedia of applied electrochemistry, Springer, Verlag, New York, 2014.
  6. Reisert, M., Aphale, A., Singh, P., Solid Oxide Electrochemical Systems: Material Degradation Processes and Novel Mitigation Approaches, Materials, 11 (2018), 11, 2169.
  7. Kharton, V.V., Solid State Electrochemistry II Electrodes, Interfaces and Ceramic Membranes, Wiley-VCH, Verlag & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2011.
  8. Berteia, A.,et al., The fractal nature of the three-phase boundary: A heuristic approach to the degradation of nanostructured solid oxide fuel cell anodes, Nano Energy, 38 (2017), pp. 526-536.
  9. Mitić, V.V., Paunović, V., Kocić, Lj., Dielectric Properties of BaTiO3 Ceramics and Curie-Weiss and Modified Curie-Weiss Affected by Fractal Morphology, In: Advanced Processing and Manyfacturing Technologies for Nanostructured and Multifunctional Materials (T. Ohji, M. Singh and S. Mathur eds.), Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 2014, Vol. 35 (6), pp. 123-133.
  10. Mitic, V.V., Kocic, Lj., Paunovic, V., Lazović, G., Miljkovic, M., Fractal nature structure reconstruction method in designing microstructure properties, Materials Research Bulletin, 101 (2018), pp. 175-183.
  11. Vojislav V. Mitić, Vesna Paunović, Goran Lazović, Ljubiša Kocić & Branislav Vlahović (2018), Clausius-Mossotti relation fractal modification, Ferroelectrics, 536:1, 60-76, DOI: 10.1080/00150193.2018.1528926
  12. Bard, A. J., Faulkner, L. R., Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, USA (2nd ed,), 2000.
  13. Nicholls, D.G., Ferguson, S.J., Bioenergetics, Academic Press, London, UK (4rd ed.,) 2013.
  14. Mandelbrot, B., The Fractal Geometry of Nature,Times Books, New York, 1982.
  15. Mandelbrot, B. B., Passoja, D. E., Paullay, A. J., Fractal character of fracture surfaces of metals,Nature, 308 (1984), 721-722.
  16. Kielland, J. J., Individual Activity Coefficients of Ions in Aqueous Solutions, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 59 (1937), pp. 1675-1678.