International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Dispersion stability and rheological characteristics of water and ethylene glycol based zinc oxide nanofluids

With advancement of nanoscience, "nanofluids" are becoming quite popular among thermal engineers. High thermal conductivity, relatively less settling speed, and higher surface area of nanoparticles are a few key promoting properties. The last two decades have seen dramatic progress towards using nanoparticles in industrial applications. However, the stability and rheological characteristics of prepared nanofluids have serious effects on their transport characteristics, but unfortunately, this has not found proper attention from researchers. In this study, stability and rheological characteristics of ZnO nanoparticles within deionized water, ethylene glycol, and their blends have been extensively tested. Stability was observed using UV-vis spectroscopy, while the viscosity was measured with the help of a rheometer. The data was collected with 0.011-0.044 wt. % loading of nanoparticles, while experiments were conducted within 15-55oC temperature range. Better stability was recorded when nanofluids were prepared with pure ethylene glycol. Experiments showed that the viscosity increased with particle loading, whereas the effect of surfactants appeared to be insignificant. Research results were used to assess predictions of different viscosity models. Experimental data was overpredicted by Einstein, Brinkman, and Batchelor's models.
PAPER REVISED: 2020-04-26
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-05-11
  1. Bahiraei, M., Heshmatian, S., Electronics cooling with nanofluids: A critical review, Energy Conversion and Management, 172 (2018), July, pp. 438-456.
  2. Gupta, M., et al., A review on thermophysical properties of nanofluids and heat transfer applications, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 74 (2017), pp. 638-670.
  3. Akram, N., et al., A comprehensive review on nanofluid operated solar flat plate collectors, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, (2019).
  4. Minea, A. A., Comparative study of turbulent heat transfer of nanofluids, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 124 (2016), 1, pp. 407-416.
  5. Rashidi, S., et al., Applications of nanofluids in condensing and evaporating systems: A review, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 131 (2018), 3, pp. 2027-2039.
  6. Tawfik, M. M., Experimental studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement and applications: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 75 (2017), pp. 1239-1253.
  7. Xian, H. W., et al., Recent state of nanofluid in automobile cooling systems, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 135 (2019), 2, pp. 981-1008.
  8. Bashirnezhad, K., et al., A comprehensive review of last experimental studies on thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 122 (2015), 2, pp. 863-884.
  9. Hussein, A. K., et al., Magneto-hydrodynamic natural convection in an inclined T-shaped enclosure for different nanofluids and subjected to a uniform heat source, Alexandria Engineering Journal, 55 (2016), 3, pp. 2157-2169.
  10. Vallejo, J. P., et al., Flow behaviour of suspensions of functionalized graphene nanoplatelets in propylene glycol-water mixtures, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 91 (2018), pp. 150-157.
  11. Murshed, S. M. S., Estellé, P., A state of the art review on viscosity of nanofluids, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76 (2017), August 2016, pp. 1134-1152.
  12. Haddad, Z., et al., A review on how the researchers prepare their nanofluids, International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 76 (2014), pp. 168-189.
  13. Kamalgharibi, M., et al., Experimental studies on the stability of CuO nanoparticles dispersed in different base fluids: influence of stirring, sonication and surface active agents, Heat and Mass Transfer, 52 (2016), 1, pp. 55-62.
  14. Yu, W., Xie, H., A Review on Nanofluids : Preparation , Stability Mechanisms , and Applications, Journal of Nanomaterials, 2012 (2012), pp. 1-17.
  15. Ahmadi Nadooshan, A., et al., Evaluating the effects of different parameters on rheological behavior of nanofluids: A comprehensive review, Powder Technology, 338 (2018), pp. 342-353.
  16. Branch, D., et al., Experimental Study on Turbulent Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop, and Thermal Performance of ZnO/Water Nanofluid Flow in a Circular Tube, Thermal conductivity, 18 (2014), 4, pp. 1315-1326.
  17. Ben Hamida, M. B., et al., Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement for Falling Film Absorption Process in Vertical Plate Absorber by Adding Copper Nanoparticles, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 43 (2018), 9, pp. 4991-5001.
  18. Yang, L., et al., Recent developments on viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids, Powder Technology, 317 (2017), pp. 348-369.
  19. Mustafa, I., Javed, T., Heat Transfer in Natural Convection Flow of Nanofluid along a Vertical Wavy Plate with Variable Heat Flux, Thermal Science, 23 (2019), 1, pp. 179-190.
  20. Kumar, M., et al., Analysis on Thermal and Flow Behavior of Tripple Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger Handling MWCNT-Water Nanofluids, Thermal Science, 24 (2020), 1B, pp. 487-494.
  21. Ponmani, S., et al., Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects Formation and characterization of thermal and electrical properties of CuO and ZnO nanofluids in xanthan gum, Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 443 (2014), pp. 37-43.
  22. Suganthi, K. S., Rajan, K. S., Temperature induced changes in ZnO-water nanofluid: Zeta potential, size distribution and viscosity profiles, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55 (2012), 25-26, pp. 7969-7980.
  23. Raykar, V. S., Singh, A. K., Thermal and rheological behavior of acetylacetone stabilized ZnO nanofluids, Thermochimica Acta, 502 (2010), 1-2, pp. 60-65.
  24. Ojha, U., et al., Stability , pH and Viscosity Relationships in Zinc Oxide Based Nanofluids Subject to Heating and Cooling Cycles, Journal of materials science and engineering, 4 (2010), 7, pp. 24-29.
  25. Pastoriza-Gallego, M. J., et al., Thermophysical profile of ethylene glycol-based ZnO nanofluids, J. Chem. Thermodynamics, 73 (2014), pp. 23-30.
  26. Hamida, B., et al., Numerical Study of Heat and Mass Transfer Enhancement for Bubble Absorption Process of Ammonia-Water Mixture without and with Nanofluids, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), 6, pp. 3107-3120.
  27. Bechir, M., et al., Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with an Ethylene Glycol-Copper Nanofluid Under Magnetic Fields, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A, 67 (2015), pp. 902-920.
  28. Bhanvase, B. A., et al., Intensification Intensification of convective heat transfer in water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids containing TiO2 nanoparticles, Chemical Engineering & Processing: Process Intensification, 82 (2014), pp. 123-131.
  29. Peyghambarzadeh, S. M., et al., Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement using water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids as a new coolant for car radiators, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 38 (2011), pp. 1283-1290.
  30. Jia, H., et al., An experimental investigation on heat transfer performance of nanofluid pulsating heat pipe, Journal of Thermal Science, 22 (2013), 5, pp. 484-490.
  31. Asadi, A., et al., Effect of sonication characteristics on stability, thermophysical properties, and heat transfer of nanofluids: A comprehensive review, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 58 (2019), p. 104701.
  32. Rojas, K., et al., Effective antimicrobial materials based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, Composites Part B: Engineering, 172 (2019), January, pp. 173-178.
  33. Ghadimi, A., et al., Nanofluid stability optimization based on UV-Vis spectrophotometer measurement, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10 (2015), pp. 32-40.
  34. Qi, C., et al., Experimental Research on Stability and Natural Convection of TiO2-Water Nanofluid in Enclosures with Different Rotation Angles, Nanoscale Research Letters, 12 (2017), pp. 1-14.
  35. Sadeghi, R., et al., Investigation of alumina nanofluid stability by UV-vis spectrum, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 18 (2015), pp. 1023-1030.
  36. Babar, H., Ali, H. M., Towards hybrid nanofluids: Preparation, thermophysical properties, applications, and challenges, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 281 (2019), pp. 598-633.
  37. Nurettin Sezer, Muataz A. Atieh, M. K., A comprehensive review on synthesis, stability, thermophysical properties, and characterization of nanofluids, (2019). pp. 404-431, 2019.
  38. Babita, Sharma, S. K., Mital, S., Preparation and evaluation of stable nanofluids for heat transfer application-A review, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 79 (2016), pp. 202-212.
  39. Anand, K., Varghese, S., Role of surfactants on the stability of nano-zinc oxide dispersions, Particulate Science and Technology, 35 (2017), 1, pp. 67-70.
  40. Chakraborty, S., Panigrahi, P. K., Stability of nanofluid: A review, Applied Thermal Engineering, 174 (2020), p. 115259.
  41. Choudhary, S., et al., In fluence of stable zinc oxide nano fluid on thermal characteristics of fl at plate solar collector, Renewable Energy, 152 (2020), pp. 1160-1170.
  42. Fakoya, M. F., Shah, S. N., Emergence of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry: Emphasis on the application of silica nanoparticles, Petroleum, 3 (2017), 4, pp. 391-405.
  43. Einstein, A., A new determination of molecular dimensions, Ann. Phys., 19 (1906), pp. 289-306,
  44. Brinkman, H. C., The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solutions, Journal of Chemical Physics, 20 (1952), 4, pp. 571-581.
  45. Batchelor, G. K., The effect of Brownian motion on the bulk stress in a suspension of spherical particles, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 83 (1977), 01, pp. 97-117.
  46. Lipczynska-Kochany, E., Effect of climate change on humic substances and associated impacts on the quality of surface water and groundwater: A review, Science of the Total Environment, 640-641 (2018), pp. 1548-1565.
  47. Kazem Bashirnezhd, Shahab Bazri, Mohammad Reza Safaei, Marjan Goodarzi, Mahidzal Dahari, Omid Mahian, Ahmet Selim Dalkilica, S. W., Viscosity of nanofluids: A review of recent experimental studies, International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 73 (2016), pp. 114-123.
  48. Thermodynamics, J. C., et al., Characterization and measurements of thermal conductivity, density and rheological properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ( ethane-1, 2-diol+water ) mixture, The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics, 58 (2013), pp. 405-415.
  49. Santillán, M. J., et al., Characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle suspensions for electrophoretic deposition, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 10 (2008), 5, pp. 787-793.
  50. Khodadadi, H., et al., A comprehensive review on rheological behavior of mono and hybrid nanofluids: Effective parameters and predictive correlations, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 127 (2018), pp. 997-1012.