**ABSTRACT**

Performance examinations of a Dual-Diesel cycle engine (DDCE) in point of engine performance (EPER) characteristics such as exergy efficiency (EXEF), power (PO) and power density (POD) have been conducted. The effect of design parameters of the engine cycle such as intake temperature, intake pressure, piston friction coefficient, average piston velocity (APV), engine revolution (N), stroke length (L), residual gas fraction (RGF), engine pressure ratio (EPR), engine temperature ratio (ETR), compression ratio (r), ratio of bore diameter to stroke length (D/L) and equivalence ratio (ϕ) on the performance characteristics are evaluated by considering variable specific heats and irreversibilities resulting from exhaust output (EO), heat transfer (HT), incomplete combustion (IC) and friction (FR). The results can provide substantial information to researchers who study on DDCE design and manufacture.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2019-07-10

PAPER REVISED: 2020-03-09

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-05-31

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2020-06-07

- Chen, L., et al., Heat Transfer Effects on the Net Work Output and Efficiency Characteristics For An Air standard Otto Cycle, Energ Convers Manage., (1998), 39, pp. 643-648.
- Ge, Y., et al., Thermodynamic Simulation of Performance of an Otto Cycle with Heat Transfer and Variable Specific heats for the Working Fluid, Int J Therm Sci., 44 (2005), 5, pp. 506-511.
- Ge, Y., et al., The Effects of Variable Specific-Heats of the Working Fluid on the Performance of an Irreversible Otto cycle, Int. J. Exergy, 2 (2005), 3, pp. 274-283.
- Chen, J., et al., Optimization Criteria for the Important Parameters of an Irreversible Otto Heat-Engine, Appl. Energy, 83 (2006), 1, pp. 228-238.
- Ozsoysal, O.A,. Heat Loss as a Percentage of the Fuel's Energy in Air Standard Otto and Diesel Cycles. Energy Convers. Manage., 47 (2006), 8, pp. 1051-1062.
- Ge, Y., et al., Finite-Time Thermodynamic Modelling and Analysis of an Irreversible Otto-Cycle. Appl. Energy, 85(2008), 1, pp. 618-624.
- Abu-Nada, E., et al., Thermodynamic analysis of spark-ignition engine using a gas mixture model for the working fluid. Int. J. Energy Res., 31(2007), 1, pp. 1031-146.
- Lin, J.C., and Hou, S.S., Effects of Heat Loss As Percentage of Fuel's Energy, Friction And Variable Specific Heats Of Working Fluid On Performance of Air Standart Otto Cycle, Energy Convers. Manage., 49(2008), 1, 1218-1227.
- Ust, Y., et al., The Effects of Cycle Temperature and Cycle Pressure Ratios on the Performance of an Irreversible Otto Cycle. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 120( 2011),1, pp. :412-416.
- Cesur, I. et al.,The effects of electronic controlled steam injection on spark ignition engine. Appl Therm Eng, 55(2013), 1, pp. 61-68.
- Gharehghani, A., et al., Experimental investigation of thermal balance of a turbocharged SI engine operating on natural gas. Appl Therm Eng 60(2013),(1-2), pp. 200-207.
- Irimescu, A., et al., Compression ratio and blow-by rates estimation based on motored pressure trace analysis for an optical spark ignition engine, Appl Therm Eng, 61 (2013), 2, 101-109.
- Al-Hinti, I., et al., Performance analysis of air-standard Diesel cycle using an alternative irreversible heat transfer approach. Energy Convers. Manage, 49 (2008),11, pp. 3301-3304.
- Hou, S.S., Heat Transfer Effects on the Performance of an Air Standard Dual Cycle, Energy Conversion and Management, 45 (2004), 18-19, pp. 3003-3015.
- Ust, Y., et al., Heat Transfer Effects on the Performance of an Air -Standard Irreversible Dual Cycle, International Journal of Vehicle Design, 63 (2013), 1, pp. 102-116.
- Xia, S., et al., Engine performance improved by controlling piston motion: Linear phenomenological law system Diesel cycle, International Journal of Thermal Sciences 51(2012), 1, pp. 163-174.
- Gonca, G., et al., A Study on Late Intake Valve Closing Miller Cycled Diesel Engine. Arab. J. Sci. Eng. 38(2013), 1, pp. 383-393.
- Gonca, G., et al., Performance maps for an air-standard irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) with late inlet valve closing (LIVC) version. Energy 5 (2013), 1, pp. 285-290.
- Gonca, G., et al., Investigation of Heat Transfer Influences on Performance of Air-Standard Irreversible Dual-Miller Cycle, Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer 29 (2015), 4, pp. 678-683.
- Gonca, G., et al., Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of the Miller Cycle Diesel Engine in Terms of Performance and Emission Parameters, Applied Energy, 138 (2015), 1, pp. 11-20.
- Gonca, G., et al., Comparison of Steam Injected Diesel Engine and Miller Cycled Diesel Engine By Using Two Zone Combustion Model, Journal of the Energy Institute, 88 (2015), 1, 2015, pp. 43-52.
- Gonca, G., et al., The Effects of Steam Injection on the Performance and Emission Parameters of a Miller Cycle Diesel Engine, Energy, 78 (2014), 1, pp. 266-275.
- Gharehghani, A., et al., Experimental investigation of thermal balance of a turbocharged SI engine operating on natural gas. Appl. Therm. Eng.,60 (2013), 1, 200-207.
- Acikkalp, E., et al., Advanced exergoeconomic analysis of a trigeneration system using a diesel-gas engine, Applied Thermal Engineering, 67(2014), 1, 388-395.
- Ozsoysal, O.A., Effects of combustion efficiency on a Dual cycle. Energy Conversion and Management 50 (2009), 1, pp. 2400-2406.
- Acikkalp, E. and Caner, N., Determining performance of an irreversible nano scale dual cycle operating with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas, Physica A, 424(2015), 1, pp. 342-349.
- Acikkalp, E. and Caner, N., Determining of the optimum performance of a nano scale irreversible Dual cycle with quantum gases as working fluid by using different methods, Physica A, 433(2015), 1, pp. 247-258.
- Ge, Y., et al., Finite-time thermodynamic modeling and analysis for an irreversible Dual cycle, Mathematical and Computer Modelling 50 (2009), 1: pp. 101-108.
- Gonca, G., Sahin, B., Simulation of Performance and Nitrogen Oxide Formation of a Hydrogen-Enriched Diesel Engine with the Steam Injection Method, Thermal Science, 19 (2015), 6, pp. 1985-1994
- Vellaiyan, S., Amirthagadeswaran K.S.N, Multi-Response Optimization of Diesel Engine Operating Parameters Running with Water-In-Diesel Emulsion Fuel, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 1, pp. 427-439
- Liu, J., et. al., The Effects of EGR and Injection Timing on The Engine Combustion And Particulate Matter Emission Performances Fuelled With Diesel-Ethanol Blends, Thermal Science, 22 (2018), 3, pp. 1457-1467
- Palaci, Y., Gonca, G., The effects of different engine material properties on the performance of a Diesel Engine at maximum combustion temperatures, Thermal Science (In press.)
- Wu, Z., et. al., Power, efficiency, ecological function and ecological coefficient of performance of an irreversible Dual-Miller cycle (DMC) with nonlinear variable specific heat ratio of working fluid, Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 132(2017), 1, pp. 203.
- Al-Sarkhi, A., et. al., Performance evaluation of irreversible Miller engine under various specific heat models, Int. Commun. Heat Mass 34 (2007),1, pp. 897-906.
- Al-Sarkhi, A., et. al., Efficiency of Atkinson engine at maximum power density using temperature dependent specific heats, JJMIE, 2(2008), 1, 71-75.
- Yin, Y., et. al., Optimal power and efficiency of quantum Stirling heat engines. Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 132 (2017), 1, pp. 45.
- Ge, Y., et al., Exergy-based ecological performance of an irreversible Otto cycle with temperature-linear-relation variable specific heat of working fluid. Eur. Phys. J. 132 (2017), 1, pp. 209.
- Gonca, G., Thermo-Ecological Analysis of Irreversible Dual-Miller Cycle (DMC) Engine Based on the Ecological Coefficient of Performance (ECOP) Criterion. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Mech Eng 41 (2017), 4, pp. 269-280.
- Gonca, G., Performance Analysis of an Atkinson Cycle Engine under Effective Power and Effective Power Density Conditions, Acta Physica Polonica A, 132(2017), 4, 1306-1313.
- Acikkalp, E., Analysis of a Brownian heat engine with ecological criteria. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 131(2016), 1, pp. 426.
- Ebrahimi, R., Effects of equivalence ratio and mean piston speed on performance of an irreversible dual cycle, Acta Physica Polonica A, 120(2011), 3, pp. 384-389.
- Ebrahimi, R., Effect of expansion-compression ratio on performance of the miller cycle. Acta Physica Polonica A, 122 (2012), 4, pp. 645-649.
- Ebrahimi, R., Performance analysis of an irreversible Miller cycle with considerations of relative air-fuel ratio and stroke length, Applied Mathematical Modelling 36 (2012), 1, pp. 4073-4079.
- Ebrahimi, R.,Thermodynamic modeling of an atkinson cycle with respect to relative air-fuel ratio, fuel mass flow rate and residual gases, Acta Physica Polonica A, 124 (2013), 1, 29-34.
- Ebrahimi, R., Performance analysis of an irreversible Miller cycle with considerations of relative air-fuel ratio and stroke length, Applied Mathematical Modelling, 36 (2012), 1, pp. 4073-4079.
- Xia, S., Chen, L., Capital dissipation minimization for a class of complex irreversible resource exchange processes. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 132 (2017), 1, pp. 201.
- Shadloo, M.S., et al., A new and efficient mechanism for spark ignition engines, Energy Convers Manage., 96 (2015), 1, pp. 418-429.
- Xia, S., et al., Maximum cycle work output optimization for generalized radiative law Otto cycle engines, Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 131(2016), 1, pp. 394.
- Chen, L., et al., Thermodynamic performance optimization for an irreversible vacuum thermionic generator, Eur. Phys. J. Plus, 132(2017), 1,pp. 293.
- Xia, S., Chen, L., Theoretical and experimental investigation of optimal capacitor charging process in RC circuit. Eur. Phys. J. Plus,132 (2017), 1, pp. 235.
- Mousapour, A., et al.,Performance evaluation of an irreversible Miller cycle comparing FTT (finite-time thermodynamics) analysis and ANN (artificial neural network) prediction. Energy 94(2016), 1, pp. 100-109.
- www.exergy.se/ftp/exergetics.pdf
- Gonca, G., Thermodynamic analysis and performance maps for the irreversible Dual-Atkinson cycle engine (DACE) with considerations of temperature-dependent specific heats, heat transfer and friction losses, Energy Conversion And Management, 111 (2016), 1, pp. 205-216.
- Gonca, G., Hocaoglu F.M., 2019. Performance Analysis and Simulation of a Diesel-Miller Cycle (DiMC) Engine, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 44(2019), 6, pp. 5811-5824.