**ABSTRACT**

The purpose of this paper is to explore and define an adequate numerical setting for the computation of aerodynamic performances of wind turbines of various shapes and sizes, which offers the possibility of choosing a suitable approach of minimal complexity for the future research. Here, mechanical power, thrust, power coefficient, thrust coefficient, pressure coefficient, pressure distribution along the blade, relative velocity contoure at different wind speeds and streamlines were considered by two different methods: the blade element momentum (BEM) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), within which three different turbulence models were analyzed. The estimation of the mentioned aerodynamic performances was carried out on two different wind turbine blades. The obtained solutions were compared with the experimental and nominal (up-scaled) values, available in the literature. Although the flow was considered as steady, a satisfactory correlation between numerical and experimental results was achieved. The comparison between results also showed, the significance of selection, regarding the complexity and geometry of the analyzed wind turbine blade, the most appropriate numerical approach for computation of aerodynamic performances.

**KEYWORDS**

PAPER SUBMITTED: 2020-02-16

PAPER REVISED: 2020-03-27

PAPER ACCEPTED: 2020-04-01

PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2020-05-02

- Plaza, B., et al., Comparison of BEM and CFD results for MEXICO rotor aerodynamics, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 145 (2015), 10, pp. 115-122
- Shen, W.Z., et al., Actuator line/Navier-Stokes computations for the MEXICO rotor: comparison with detailed measurements, Wind Energy, 15 (2012), 7, pp. 811-825
- Kim, T., et al., Improved actuator surface method for wind turbine application, Renewable Energy, 76 (2015), 4, pp. 16-26
- Jeong, M.S., et al., The impact of yaw error on aeroelastic characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine blade, Renewable energy, 60 (2013), 12, pp. 256-268
- Qiu, Y.X., et al., Predictions of unsteady HAWT aerodynamics in yawing and pitching using the free vortex method, Renewable Energy, 70 (2014), 10, pp. 93-106
- Shen, W.Z., et al., Tip loss corrections for wind turbine computations, Wind Energy, 8 (2005), 10/12, pp. 457-475
- Henriksen, L.C., et al., A simplified dynamic inflow model and its effect on the performance of free mean wind speed estimation, Wind Energy, 16 (2012), 11, pp. 1213-1224
- AbdelSalam, A.M., Ramalingam, V., Wake prediction of horizontal-axis wind turbine using full-rotor modeling, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 124 (2014), 1, pp. 7-19
- Esfahanian, V., et al., Numerical analysis of flow field around NREL Phase II wind turbine by a hybrid CFD/BEM method, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 120 (2013), 9, pp. 29-36
- Svorcan, J., et al., Two-dimensional numerical analysis of active flow control by steady blowing along foil suction side by different URANS turbulence models, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), Suppl. 3, pp. S649-S662
- Bak, C., et al., Description of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine, DTU Wind Energy, Roskilde, Denmark, 2013
- Schepers, J. G., et al., Final report of IEA Task 29, Mexnext (Phase 1): Analysis of Mexico wind tunnel measurements, ECN Wind Energy, Petten, The Netherlands, 2012
- Yang, X., Sotiropoulos, F., A new class of actuator surface models for wind turbines, Wind Energy, 21 (2018), 5, pp. 285-302
- Nilsson, K., et al., Validation of the actuator line method using near wake measurements of the MEXICO rotor, Wind Energy, 18 (2015), 3, pp. 499-514
- Sørensen, N.N., et al., Near wake Reynolds‐averaged Navier-Stokes predictions of the wake behind the MEXICO rotor in axial and yawed flow conditions, Wind Energy, 17 (2014), 1, pp. 75-86
- Zahle, F., et al., Comprehensive aerodynamic analysis of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor using 3D CFD, 32nd ASME Wind Energy Symposium, National Harbor, USA, 2014, article number 102895
- Zahle, F., et al., Aero-elastic optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine, 33rd Wind Energy Symposium, Kissimmee, USA, 2015, AIAA, article number 112919
- Marten, D. and Wendler, J., QBlade guidelines, Ver. 0.6, Berlin, Germany, 2013
- Drela, M., XFOIL: An analysis and design system for low Reynolds number airfoils, Low Reynolds number aerodynamics Proceedings of the Conference Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, 1989, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1-12
- Fuglsang, P., et al., Validation of a wind tunnel testing facility for blade surface pressure measurements, Risoe-R-981(EN), Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark, 1998
- Holierhoek, J.G., Aeroelasticity of large wind turbines, Ph.D. theses, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 2008
- Wang, L., et al., State of the art in the aeroelasticity of wind turbine blades: Aeroelastic modelling, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 64 (2016), 10, pp. 195-210
- Spalart, P. and Allmaras, S., A one-equation turbulence model for aerodynamic flows, 30th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 1992, Reno, Nev, USA, AIAA, article number AIAA-92-0439
- Pajčin, M.P., et al. Numerical analysis of a hypersonic turbulent and laminar flow using a commercial CFD solver, Thermal Science, 21 (2017), 3, pp. S795-S807
- ANSYS FLUENT Theory Guide, ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, Penn., USA, 2015
- Menter, F.R., Zonal two equation k-ω turbulence models for aerodynamic flows, 23rd Fluid Dynamics, Plasmadynamics, and Lasers Conference, Orlando, USA, 1993, AIAA, article number AIAA-93-2906
- Peric B., et. al., Numerical analysis of aerodynamic performance of offshore wind turbine, 7th International Congress of Serbian Society of Mechanics, Sremski Karlovci, Serbia, June 24-26, 2019
- Svorcan, J., et al., Estimation of wind turbine blade aerodynamic performances computed using different numerical approaches, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 45 (2018), 1, pp.53-65