THERMAL SCIENCE

International Scientific Journal

Thermal Science - Online First

online first only

Simulation and safety analysis of the leakage of liquefied hydrogen from high-pressure container

ABSTRACT
In this paper, the leakage and diffusion of liquefied hydrogen (LH2) which is stored in high-pressure container were investigated and the safety arrangement in cosmodrome focused on the effects of external flow on the above process was proposed. The phase transition process of leakage of LH2 at the initial stage was first analyzed by considering the motion of single particle and particle group. Furthermore, the rule of leakage and diffusion of LH2 under different conditions was thoroughly examined by CFD modeling. Through this work, the leakage pressure, leakage location, external airflow direction and external airflow velocity are found to have great effects on the diffusion of leaking hydrogen. By increasing the leakage pressure and putting leakage port closer to ground, the diffusion and dilution of leaking hydrogen would be strongly expedited to spread much further away. By adopting upper air blow and raising the external air speed, the concentration can be fairly reduced.
KEYWORDS
PAPER SUBMITTED: 2018-04-11
PAPER REVISED: 2018-06-19
PAPER ACCEPTED: 2018-10-18
PUBLISHED ONLINE: 2019-04-14
DOI REFERENCE: https://doi.org/10.2298/TSCI180411117W
REFERENCES
  1. Cao, W. Z., Hydrogen Energy: Production Process and Appication. The Second International Youth Hydrogen Energy Forum, Beijing, China, Aug 28-30, 2003.
  2. Ichard, M., et al., CFD Computations of Liquid Hydrogen Releases. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37(2012), 22, pp.17380-17389.
  3. Lin, C. S., et al., Use of Hydrogenic Energy and Research Status of Hydrogen Production and Storage Technology. Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection, 2(2010), Feb., pp.42-43.
  4. Xu, W., et al., Progress of Research on Hydrogen Storage. Progress of Chemistry, 18(2006), 2, pp.200-209.
  5. Wang, Q. S., et al., Main Consequences Analysis after Liquid Hydrogen Release. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology, 28(2006), 2, pp.279-284.
  6. Zhao, R. X., et al., Safety Control of Liquid Hydrogen. Missiles and Space Vehicles, 2(1981), Apr., pp.1-12.
  7. Zhang, Q. Y., Comprehensive Risk Analysis of Liquid Hydrogen. Foreign Missile Technology, 7(1983), Jul., pp.50-53.
  8. Raymond, W. M., Analysis of Liquid Hydrogen Explosion. Physics Teacher, 23(1985), 9, pp.57-59.
  9. Nakamichi, K., et al., Observation of Liquid Hydrogen Jet on Flashing and Evaporation Characteristics, Cryogenics, 48(2008), 1, pp.26-30.
  10. Raj, P. K., et al., Underwater LNG Release: Does a Pool Form on the Water Surface? What are the Characteristics of the Vapor Released. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 23(2010), 6, pp.753-761.
  11. Najjar, Y. S. H., Hydrogen safety: The Road toward Green Technology. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 38(2013), 25, pp.10716-10728.
  12. Lowesmith, B. J., et al., Safety Issues of the Liquefaction, Storage and Transportation of Liquid Hydrogen: An Analysis of Incidents and Hazards. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(2014), 35, pp.20516-20521.
  13. Giannissi, S. G., et al., CFD Modeling of Hydrogen Dispersion under Cryogenic Release Conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39(2014), 28, COMSOL conference
  14. Hallgarth, A., et al., Hydrogen Vehicle Leak Modelling in Indoor Ventilated Environments. COMSOL conference, Milan, Italy, Nov 20-22, 2009.
  15. Zhang, Q. Y., Analysis of Explosion and Detonation of Liquid Hydrogen. China Aerospace, 9(1982), Sept., pp.48-51.
  16. Hu, D., et al., Studies of the Detonability Limit and the Transition from Deflagration to Detonation for Detonability Gases. Explosion and Shock Waves, 9(1989), 3, pp.266-275.
  17. Du, X. P., et al., The Hazardous Analysis of Explosion about Storage Vessels within Liquid Hydrogen according to Different Types of Layout. The International Symposium on Shock & Impact Dynamics-2011, Taiyuan, Shanxi, July 26-30, 2011.
  18. Willoughby, D. B., et al., Experimental Releases of Liquid Hydrogen. The 4th International Conference of Hydrogen Safety, San Francisco, CA, Sept. 12-14, 2011.